File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / guide / exinst.mdwn
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 * toc: Reorder the TOC to reflect reality (it was just ported wrong before)
 * exinst: Port the table.

    1: # Example installation
    3: ## Introduction
    5: This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts 
    6: presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the 
    7: way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the 
    8: installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this 
    9: chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.
   11: ### Note
   13: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as 
   14: your hardware and configuration details may be different!
   16: ## The installation process
   18: The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part 
   19: you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In 
   20: the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating 
   21: system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created 
   22: partition(s).
   24: ## Keyboard layout
   26: [[!table data="""
   27: US | IT | DE | FR
   28: `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
   29: `/` | `-` | `-` | `!`
   30: `=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`
   31: `:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`
   32: `;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`
   33: `#` | `£` | `§` | `3`
   34: `"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`
   35: `*` | `(` | `(` | `8`
   36: `(` | `)` | `)` | `9`
   37: `)` | `=` | `=` | `0`
   38: `'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`
   39: `` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`
   40: `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
   41: """]]
   43: The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout 
   44: during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can 
   45: use the map in the following table.
   47: ## Starting the installation
   49: To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB 
   50: drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation 
   51: medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about 
   52: hardware being detected.
   54: ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
   55: **Selecting the language**
   57: When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation 
   58: program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow 
   59: the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a 
   60: companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in 
   61: the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or 
   62: less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of 
   63: the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is 
   64: made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys, 
   65: the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters 
   66: displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.
   68: Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
   70: The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:
   72: ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)  
   73: **Selecting a keyboard type**
   75: This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:
   77: ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
   78: **The sysinst main menu**
   80: Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen 
   81: , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
   83: ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
   84: **Confirming to install NetBSD**
   86: After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks 
   87: and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the 
   88: following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`, 
   89: the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will 
   90: be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
   92: ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
   93: **Choosing a hard disk**
   95: The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom 
   96: installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full 
   97: installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation* 
   98: will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working 
   99: system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would 
  100: like to have installed. This step is shown here:
  102: ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
  103: **Full or custom installation**
  105: If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose 
  106: which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a 
  107: minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
  109: ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)  
  110: **Selecting distribution sets**
  112: ## MBR partitions
  114: The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the 
  115: hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition 
  116: (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to 
  117: create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend 
  118: that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format 
  119: which is compatible with other operating systems.
  121: ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
  122: **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
  124: The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard 
  125: disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and 
  126: as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other 
  127: partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is 
  128: currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
  130: ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)  
  131: **fdisk**
  133: Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with 
  134: options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to 
  135: *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the 
  136: partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
  138: You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to 
  139: install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary 
  140: partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with 
  141: options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
  143: ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
  144: **Partition options**
  146: To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
  148:  * the type (kind) of the new partition
  149:  * the first (start) sector of the new partition
  150:  * the size of the new partition
  152: Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type` 
  153: option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based 
  154: on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same 
  155: thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in 
  156: the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk 
  157: (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect, 
  158: or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
  160: After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good 
  161: idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by 
  162: selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a 
  163: good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both 
  164: NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD 
  165: bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your 
  166: choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR 
  167: partition table editor.
  169: If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created 
  170: overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go 
  171: back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the 
  172: data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which 
  173: is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed 
  174: anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
  176: *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a 
  177: partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the 
  178: problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing 
  179: schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics 
  180: are not described in this guide.
  182: On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible 
  183: to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard 
  184: disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
  186: Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This 
  187: screen is shown here:
  189: ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
  190: **Installing the boot selector**
  192: At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been 
  193: created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk 
  194: partitions*.
  196: *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD 
  197: partitions*, which are different things.
  199: ## Disklabel partitions
  201: Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions 
  202: to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the 
  203: installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do 
  204: not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
  206: NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at 
  207: the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a 
  208: [disklabel(5)]( 
  209: and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as 
  210: shown here:
  212: ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
  213: **Edit partitions?**
  215: When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the 
  216: partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a 
  217: disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
  219: ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
  220: **Setting partition sizes**
  222: The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus 
  223: swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The 
  224: previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB. 
  225: Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk* 
  226: ([mfs(8)]( for 
  227: extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate 
  228: partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own 
  229: experience to decide if you need this.
  231: The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary, 
  232: using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in 
  233: the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In 
  234: that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes 
  235: ok*.
  237: ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
  238: **The disklabel editor**
  240: There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and 
  241: `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the 
  242: cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an 
  243: unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing 
  244: screen is shown below:
  246: ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
  247: **Disklabel partition editing**
  249: ## Setting the disk name
  251: After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a 
  252: name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish 
  253: between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
  255: ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
  256: **Naming the NetBSD disk**
  258: ## Last chance!
  260: The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has 
  261: been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the 
  262: installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to 
  263: abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by 
  264: selecting *yes*.
  266: ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
  267: **Last chance to abort**
  269: ## The disk preparation process
  271: After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run 
  272: [disklabel(8)]( 
  273: to create the NetBSD partition layout and 
  274: [newfs(8)]( to 
  275: create the file systems on the disk.
  277: After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question 
  278: (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will 
  279: choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your 
  280: computer's display.
  282: If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use 
  283: a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows 
  284: changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 
  285: no parity and one stopbit.
  287: ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
  288: **Selecting bootblocks**
  290: ## Choosing the installation media
  292: At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the 
  293: installation!
  295: The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file 
  296: systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base, 
  297: compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what 
  298: information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can 
  299: choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or 
  300: nothing.
  302: ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)  
  303: **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**
  305: Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find 
  306: them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained 
  307: in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.
  309: ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
  310: **Installation media**
  312: ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD
  314: When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device 
  315: and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is 
  316: usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE 
  317: or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
  319: ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)  
  320: **CD-ROM/DVD installation**
  322: ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name
  324: If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the 
  325: following:
  327:  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
  329:  2. Type the command:
  331:         # dmesg
  333:     This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.
  335:  3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:
  337:         # dmesg | more
  339:  4. Go back to the installation program with the command:
  341:         # fg
  343: ### Installing from an unmounted file system
  345: The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system. 
  346: It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device 
  347: (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting 
  348: for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.
  350: In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system, 
  351: on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
  353: ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
  354: **Mounting a file system**
  356: It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The 
  357: following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
  359: ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
  360: **Mounting a partition**
  362: In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it 
  363: could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The 
  364: *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`. 
  365: Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
  366: *
  368: ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
  369: **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
  371: ### Installing via FTP
  373: If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst 
  374: will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files 
  375: to a temporary directory, and then extract them.
  377: NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless, 
  378: and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported 
  379: during installation.
  381: The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting 
  382: which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available 
  383: network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
  385: *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you 
  386: use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000 
  387: and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This 
  388: list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
  390: To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the 
  391: installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
  393:     # ifconfig -a
  394:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  395:             address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5
  396:             media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex
  397:             status: active
  398:             inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast
  399:             inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
  400:     lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196
  401:             inet netmask 0xff000000
  402:             inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
  403:             inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2
  404:     ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  405:     ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  406:     sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
  407:     sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
  408:     strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
  409:     strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100 
  411: To get more information about all the devices found during system startup, 
  412: including network devices, type
  414:     # dmesg | more
  416: You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing
  418:     # fg
  420: ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
  421: **Which network interface to configure**
  423: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
  425: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the 
  426: default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, 
  427: you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get 
  428: a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for 
  429: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
  431:     # ifconfig -m ne2
  432:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  433:             address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
  434:             media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
  435:             status: active
  436:             supported Ethernet media:
  437:                     media 10baseT
  438:                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
  439:                     media 10base2
  440:                     media autoselect
  442: The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including 
  443: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
  445: Return to the installation by typing:
  447:     # fg
  449: The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as 
  450: shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host 
  451: Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst 
  452: will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values 
  453: manually.
  455: We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
  457: ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
  458: **Using DHCP for network configuration**
  460: The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The 
  461: values to be entered are:
  463:  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
  464:  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your 
  465:    computer. Not used during installation.
  466:  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in 
  467:    *dotted quad* notation here, for example,
  468:  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value 
  469:    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (``).
  470:  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not 
  471:    use a hostname here!
  472:  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use 
  473:    a hostname.
  475: ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
  476: **Entering and configuring network data**
  478: After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed, 
  479: and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
  481: ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
  482: **Confirming network parameters**
  484: sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure 
  485: the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing 
  486: if the network connection is operational.
  488: Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer 
  489: how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
  491: When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time), 
  492: choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
  494: ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
  495: **Defining the FTP settings**
  497: ### Installing via NFS
  499: If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an 
  500: alternative to FTP.
  502: *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS 
  503: server, a topic which is not discussed here.
  505: As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host", 
  506: the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set 
  507: directory", which contains the install sets.
  509: ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
  510: **NFS install screen**
  512: The following image shows an example: Host `` is the NFS server that 
  513: provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are 
  514: stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server. 
  515: Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
  517: ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
  518: **NFS example**
  520: ## Extracting sets
  522: After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if 
  523: applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into 
  524: the new NetBSD file system.
  526: After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the 
  527: `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
  529: Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and 
  530: that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before 
  531: finishing the NetBSD installation:
  533: ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
  534: **Extraction of sets completed**
  536: ## System configuration
  538: The first thing you can configure is your timezone. It is *Universal Time 
  539: Coordinated* (UTC) by default, and you can use the two-level menu of 
  540: continents/countries and cities shown below to select your timezone with the 
  541: Return key. Next, press `x` followed by Return to exit timezone selection.
  543: ![Selecting the system's time zone](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
  544: **Selecting the system's time zone**
  546: At this point, you are given the option to choose a password encryption scheme. 
  547: While *DES* is the standard algorithm used on most Unix systems, *MD5*, 
  548: *Blowfish*, and *SHA1* allow longer passwords than DES, which only uses the 
  549: first eight characters of the password that is entered. DES is still useful for 
  550: interoperability with other operating systems.
  552: ![Selecting a password encryption scheme](/guide/images/exinst_cipher.png)  
  553: **Selecting a password encryption scheme**
  555: After choosing the password cipher you are asked if you want to set the root 
  556: password. It is recommended to set a root password at this point for security 
  557: reasons.
  559: ![Set a root password?](/guide/images/exinst_passwd.png)  
  560: **Set a root password?**
  562: When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the 
  563: [passwd(1)]( 
  564: utility for you. Please note that the password is not echoed.
  566: ![Setting root password](/guide/images/exinst_passwd2.png)  
  567: **Setting root password**
  569: The next menu allows you to choose which command line interpreter - also known 
  570: as a `shell` - will be used for the root account. The default is the classic 
  571: *Bourne shell*, 
  572: [sh(1)]( Other 
  573: choices are the *Korn shell* 
  574: ([ksh(1)]( and the 
  575: *C shell* 
  576: ([csh(1)]( If, 
  577: upon reading this, you don't have some idea of which shell you prefer, simply 
  578: use the default, as this is a highly subjective decision. Should you later 
  579: change your mind, root's shell can always be changed.
  581: ![Choosing a shell](/guide/images/exinst_shell.png)  
  582: **Choosing a shell**
  584: ## Finishing the installation
  586: At this point the installation is finished.
  588: ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
  589: **Installation completed**
  591: After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to 
  592: the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose 
  593: *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
  595: ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  
  596: **Reboot to finish installation**

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