File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / guide / exinst.mdwn
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Tue Mar 12 22:20:54 2013 UTC (6 years, 7 months ago) by jdf
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 * toc: Reorder the TOC to reflect reality (it was just ported wrong before)
 * exinst: Port the table.

# Example installation

## Introduction

This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts 
presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the 
way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the 
installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this 
chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.

### Note

The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as 
your hardware and configuration details may be different!

## The installation process

The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part 
you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In 
the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating 
system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created 

## Keyboard layout

[[!table data="""
US | IT | DE | FR
`-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
`/` | `-` | `-` | `!`
`=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`
`:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`
`;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`
`#` | `£` | `§` | `3`
`"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`
`*` | `(` | `(` | `8`
`(` | `)` | `)` | `9`
`)` | `=` | `=` | `0`
`'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`
`` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`
`\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``

The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout 
during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can 
use the map in the following table.

## Starting the installation

To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB 
drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation 
medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about 
hardware being detected.

![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
**Selecting the language**

When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation 
program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow 
the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a 
companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in 
the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or 
less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of 
the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is 
made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys, 
the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters 
displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.

Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.

The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:

![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)  
**Selecting a keyboard type**

This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:

![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
**The sysinst main menu**

Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen 
, where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:

![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
**Confirming to install NetBSD**

After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks 
and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the 
following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`, 
the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will 
be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.

![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
**Choosing a hard disk**

The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom 
installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full 
installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation* 
will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working 
system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would 
like to have installed. This step is shown here:

![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
**Full or custom installation**

If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose 
which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a 
minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.

![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)  
**Selecting distribution sets**

## MBR partitions

The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the 
hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition 
(suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to 
create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend 
that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format 
which is compatible with other operating systems.

![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
**Choosing the partitioning scheme**

The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard 
disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and 
as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other 
partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is 
currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.


Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with 
options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to 
*Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the 
partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.

You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to 
install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary 
partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with 
options for that partition will appear, as shown here:

![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
**Partition options**

To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:

 * the type (kind) of the new partition
 * the first (start) sector of the new partition
 * the size of the new partition

Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type` 
option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based 
on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same 
thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in 
the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk 
(depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect, 
or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.

After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good 
idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by 
selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a 
good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both 
NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD 
bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your 
choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR 
partition table editor.

If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created 
overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go 
back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the 
data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which 
is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed 
anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.

*Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a 
partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the 
problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing 
schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics 
are not described in this guide.

On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible 
to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard 
disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.

Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This 
screen is shown here:

![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
**Installing the boot selector**

At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been 
created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk 

*Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD 
partitions*, which are different things.

## Disklabel partitions

Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions 
to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the 
installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do 
not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.

NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at 
the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a 
and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as 
shown here:

![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
**Edit partitions?**

When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the 
partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a 
disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:

![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
**Setting partition sizes**

The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus 
swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The 
previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB. 
Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk* 
([mfs(8)]( for 
extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate 
partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own 
experience to decide if you need this.

The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary, 
using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in 
the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In 
that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes 

![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
**The disklabel editor**

There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and 
`d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the 
cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an 
unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing 
screen is shown below:

![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
**Disklabel partition editing**

## Setting the disk name

After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a 
name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish 
between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.

![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
**Naming the NetBSD disk**

## Last chance!

The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has 
been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the 
installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to 
abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by 
selecting *yes*.

![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
**Last chance to abort**

## The disk preparation process

After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run 
to create the NetBSD partition layout and 
[newfs(8)]( to 
create the file systems on the disk.

After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question 
(shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will 
choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your 
computer's display.

If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use 
a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows 
changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 
no parity and one stopbit.

![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
**Selecting bootblocks**

## Choosing the installation media

At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the 

The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file 
systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base, 
compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what 
information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can 
choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or 

![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)  
**Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**

Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find 
them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained 
in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.

![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
**Installation media**

### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD

When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device 
and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is 
usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE 
or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).

![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)  
**CD-ROM/DVD installation**

### The CD-ROM/DVD device name

If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the 

 1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.

 2. Type the command:

        # dmesg

    This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.

 3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:

        # dmesg | more

 4. Go back to the installation program with the command:

        # fg

### Installing from an unmounted file system

The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system. 
It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device 
(*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting 
for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.

In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system, 
on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.

![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
**Mounting a file system**

It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The 
following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.

![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
**Mounting a partition**

In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it 
could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The 
*Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`. 
Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.

![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
**Accessing a MSDOS file system**

### Installing via FTP

If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst 
will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files 
to a temporary directory, and then extract them.

NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless, 
and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported 
during installation.

The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting 
which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available 
network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.

*Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you 
use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000 
and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This 
list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.

To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the 
installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter

    # ifconfig -a
            address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5
            media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex
            status: active
            inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast
            inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
    lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196
            inet netmask 0xff000000
            inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
            inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2
    ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
    ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
    sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
    sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
    strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
    strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100 

To get more information about all the devices found during system startup, 
including network devices, type

    # dmesg | more

You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing

    # fg

![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
**Which network interface to configure**

Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.

*Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the 
default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, 
you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get 
a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for 
example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:

    # ifconfig -m ne2
            address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
            media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
            status: active
            supported Ethernet media:
                    media 10baseT
                    media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
                    media 10base2
                    media autoselect

The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including 
keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.

Return to the installation by typing:

    # fg

The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as 
shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host 
Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst 
will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values 

We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.

![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
**Using DHCP for network configuration**

The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The 
values to be entered are:

 * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
 * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your 
   computer. Not used during installation.
 * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in 
   *dotted quad* notation here, for example,
 * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value 
   (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (``).
 * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not 
   use a hostname here!
 * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use 
   a hostname.

![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
**Entering and configuring network data**

After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed, 
and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.

![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
**Confirming network parameters**

sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure 
the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing 
if the network connection is operational.

Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer 
how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.

When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time), 
choose *Get Distribution* to continue.

![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
**Defining the FTP settings**

### Installing via NFS

If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an 
alternative to FTP.

*Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS 
server, a topic which is not discussed here.

As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host", 
the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set 
directory", which contains the install sets.

![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
**NFS install screen**

The following image shows an example: Host `` is the NFS server that 
provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are 
stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server. 
Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.

![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
**NFS example**

## Extracting sets

After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if 
applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into 
the new NetBSD file system.

After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the 
`/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.

Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and 
that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before 
finishing the NetBSD installation:

![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
**Extraction of sets completed**

## System configuration

The first thing you can configure is your timezone. It is *Universal Time 
Coordinated* (UTC) by default, and you can use the two-level menu of 
continents/countries and cities shown below to select your timezone with the 
Return key. Next, press `x` followed by Return to exit timezone selection.

![Selecting the system's time zone](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
**Selecting the system's time zone**

At this point, you are given the option to choose a password encryption scheme. 
While *DES* is the standard algorithm used on most Unix systems, *MD5*, 
*Blowfish*, and *SHA1* allow longer passwords than DES, which only uses the 
first eight characters of the password that is entered. DES is still useful for 
interoperability with other operating systems.

![Selecting a password encryption scheme](/guide/images/exinst_cipher.png)  
**Selecting a password encryption scheme**

After choosing the password cipher you are asked if you want to set the root 
password. It is recommended to set a root password at this point for security 

![Set a root password?](/guide/images/exinst_passwd.png)  
**Set a root password?**

When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the 
utility for you. Please note that the password is not echoed.

![Setting root password](/guide/images/exinst_passwd2.png)  
**Setting root password**

The next menu allows you to choose which command line interpreter - also known 
as a `shell` - will be used for the root account. The default is the classic 
*Bourne shell*, 
[sh(1)]( Other 
choices are the *Korn shell* 
([ksh(1)]( and the 
*C shell* 
([csh(1)]( If, 
upon reading this, you don't have some idea of which shell you prefer, simply 
use the default, as this is a highly subjective decision. Should you later 
change your mind, root's shell can always be changed.

![Choosing a shell](/guide/images/exinst_shell.png)  
**Choosing a shell**

## Finishing the installation

At this point the installation is finished.

![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
**Installation completed**

After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to 
the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose 
*Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.

![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  
**Reboot to finish installation**

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