Annotation of wikisrc/guide/exinst.mdwn, revision 1.7
1.3 jdf 1: **Contents**
3: [[!toc levels=3]]
1.1 jdf 5: # Example installation
7: ## Introduction
1.5 jdf 9: This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts
10: presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the
11: way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the
1.7 ! sevan 12: installation differ depending on the NetBSD release. The examples from this
! 13: chapter were created with NetBSD 8.0.
1.1 jdf 14:
15: ### Note
1.5 jdf 17: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as
1.1 jdf 18: your hardware and configuration details may be different!
20: ## The installation process
1.5 jdf 22: The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part
23: you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In
24: the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating
25: system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created
1.1 jdf 26: partition(s).
28: ## Keyboard layout
1.7 ! sevan 30: The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout
! 31: during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can
! 32: use the map in the following table.
1.2 jdf 34: [[!table data="""
35: US | IT | DE | FR
36: `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
37: `/` | `-` | `-` | `!`
38: `=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`
39: `:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`
40: `;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`
41: `#` | `£` | `§` | `3`
42: `"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`
43: `*` | `(` | `(` | `8`
44: `(` | `)` | `)` | `9`
45: `)` | `=` | `=` | `0`
46: `'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`
47: `` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`
48: `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
1.1 jdf 50:
51: ## Starting the installation
1.5 jdf 53: To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB
54: drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation
1.7 ! sevan 55: medium will be booted and it will start displaying a lot of messages on the
! 56: screen about hardware being detected.
1.1 jdf 57:
58: ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)
59: **Selecting the language**
1.5 jdf 61: When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation
62: program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow
63: the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a
64: companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in
65: the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or
66: less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of
67: the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is
68: made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys,
69: the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters
1.7 ! sevan 70: displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return (also
! 71: known as "Enter") key.
1.1 jdf 72:
73: Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
75: The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:
77: ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)
78: **Selecting a keyboard type**
80: This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:
82: ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)
83: **The sysinst main menu**
1.5 jdf 85: Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen
1.1 jdf 86: , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
88: ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)
89: **Confirming to install NetBSD**
1.5 jdf 91: After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks
92: and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the
93: following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`,
1.7 ! sevan 94: the first SATA or IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will
1.1 jdf 95: be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
97: ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)
98: **Choosing a hard disk**
1.7 ! sevan 100: Then installer will ask to confirm the detected disk geometry from the
! 101: information provided by the BIOS. It gives almost always the right values. Choose
! 102: "This is the correct geometry", unless you know that the information provided by
! 103: your BIOS is reportedly incorrect.
1.1 jdf 104:
1.7 ! sevan 105: ![Disk geometry](/guide/images/exinst_disk-geometry.png)
! 106: **Disk geometry**
1.1 jdf 107:
108: ## MBR partitions
1.5 jdf 110: The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the
111: hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition
112: (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to
113: create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend
114: that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format
1.1 jdf 115: which is compatible with other operating systems.
117: ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)
118: **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
1.5 jdf 120: The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard
121: disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and
122: as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other
123: partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is
1.1 jdf 124: currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
1.5 jdf 129: Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with
130: options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to
131: *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the
1.1 jdf 132: partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
1.5 jdf 134: You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to
135: install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary
136: partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with
1.1 jdf 137: options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
139: ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)
140: **Partition options**
142: To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
144: * the type (kind) of the new partition
145: * the first (start) sector of the new partition
146: * the size of the new partition
1.5 jdf 148: Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type`
149: option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based
150: on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same
151: thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in
152: the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk
153: (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect,
1.1 jdf 154: or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
1.5 jdf 156: After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good
157: idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by
1.7 ! sevan 158: selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`.
! 159: Repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both
1.5 jdf 160: NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD
1.7 ! sevan 161: bootselector. You can also choose one of the labelled partitions as default for
! 162: the boot menu. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your
1.5 jdf 163: choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR
1.1 jdf 164: partition table editor.
1.5 jdf 166: If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created
1.7 ! sevan 167: overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest to go
1.5 jdf 168: back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the
169: data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which
170: is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed
1.1 jdf 171: anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
1.5 jdf 173: *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a
174: partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the
175: problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing
176: schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics
1.1 jdf 177: are not described in this guide.
1.5 jdf 179: On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible
180: to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard
1.1 jdf 181: disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
1.5 jdf 183: Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This
1.1 jdf 184: screen is shown here:
186: ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)
187: **Installing the boot selector**
1.5 jdf 189: At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been
190: created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk
1.1 jdf 191: partitions*.
1.5 jdf 193: *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD
1.1 jdf 194: partitions*, which are different things.
196: ## Disklabel partitions
1.5 jdf 198: Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions
199: to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the
200: installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do
1.1 jdf 201: not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
1.5 jdf 203: NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at
204: the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a
1.6 plunky 205: [[!template id=man name="disklabel" section="5"]]
1.5 jdf 206: and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as
1.1 jdf 207: shown here:
209: ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)
210: **Edit partitions?**
1.5 jdf 212: When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the
213: partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a
1.1 jdf 214: disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
216: ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)
217: **Setting partition sizes**
1.5 jdf 219: The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus
220: swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The
1.7 ! sevan 221: previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 4096 MB.
! 222: Note also that partition / is marked with a "+", so it will occupy all the remaining free space (not located for any other partition).
1.5 jdf 223: Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk*
1.7 ! sevan 224: ([[!template id=man name="mount_tmpfs" section="8"]] or [[!template id=man name="mfs" section="8"]]) for
1.5 jdf 225: extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate
226: partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own
1.7 ! sevan 227: experience to decide if you need this. When you completed the definition of all the desired partitions, choose *Accept partition sizes*.
1.1 jdf 228:
1.5 jdf 229: The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary,
230: using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in
231: the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In
232: that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes
1.1 jdf 233: ok*.
235: ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)
236: **The disklabel editor**
1.7 ! sevan 238: In the amd64 port, there are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and
1.5 jdf 239: `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the
1.7 ! sevan 240: cursor keys and pressing the return key or using the corresponding letters. You can add a partition by selecting an
1.5 jdf 241: unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing
1.7 ! sevan 242: screen is shown below. When you are satisfied with all the values, choose *Partition sizes ok".
1.1 jdf 243:
244: ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)
245: **Disklabel partition editing**
247: ## Setting the disk name
1.5 jdf 249: After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a
1.7 ! sevan 250: name for the NetBSD disk as shown below. This can be used later to distinguish
1.1 jdf 251: between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
253: ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)
254: **Naming the NetBSD disk**
256: ## Last chance!
1.5 jdf 258: The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has
259: been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the
260: installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to
261: abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by
1.1 jdf 262: selecting *yes*.
264: ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)
265: **Last chance to abort**
267: ## The disk preparation process
1.5 jdf 269: After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run
1.6 plunky 270: [[!template id=man name="disklabel" section="8"]]
1.5 jdf 271: to create the NetBSD partition layout and
1.6 plunky 272: [[!template id=man name="newfs" section="8"]] to
1.1 jdf 273: create the file systems on the disk.
1.5 jdf 275: After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question
276: (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will
277: choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your
1.1 jdf 278: computer's display.
1.5 jdf 280: If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use
281: a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows
282: changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits,
1.1 jdf 283: no parity and one stopbit.
285: ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)
286: **Selecting bootblocks**
1.7 ! sevan 288: ## Installation type
! 290: The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom
! 291: installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full
! 292: installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation*
! 293: will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working
! 294: system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would
! 295: like to have installed. This step is shown here:
! 297: ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)
! 298: **Full or custom installation**
! 300: If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose
! 301: which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a
! 302: minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
1.1 jdf 304: ## Choosing the installation media
1.5 jdf 306: At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the
1.1 jdf 307: installation!
1.5 jdf 309: The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file
310: systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base,
1.7 ! sevan 311: compiler tools, games, etc). Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you
! 312: must tell it where to find them: it can be the same medium where sysinst
! 313: resides, or a different one, according to your preferences. The menu offers
! 314: several choices, as shown below. The options are explained in detail in the
! 315: `INSTALL` documents.
1.1 jdf 316:
317: ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)
318: **Installation media**
1.7 ! sevan 320: ### Installing from CD-ROM / DVD / install image media
1.1 jdf 321:
1.7 ! sevan 322: Choose this option if you want to install NetBSD from either an optic medium
! 323: ("CD-ROM / DVD") or another medium, such as an USB drive. If the running sysinst
! 324: itself has been loaded from there, the corresponding device will be
! 325: automatically selected and the extraction of the distribution sets will begin.
1.1 jdf 326:
1.7 ! sevan 327: ### The CD-ROM/DVD or other device name
1.1 jdf 328:
1.7 ! sevan 329: If sysinst is not able to detect the CD-ROM/DVD or the USB flash device, you can
! 330: gather more information about the hardware configuration as follows:
1.1 jdf 331:
332: 1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
334: 2. Type the command:
336: # dmesg
338: This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.
340: 3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:
342: # dmesg | more
1.7 ! sevan 344: This will show the kernel startup messages, including information about not
! 345: detected or not configured devices. When the first CD-ROM or DVD drive in the
! 346: system is properly working, it is usually named `cd0`, regardless of whether it is
! 347: IDE or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire). The first USB flash drive is named sd0
! 348: when it is correctly configured.
1.1 jdf 349:
1.7 ! sevan 350: 4. As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either
! 351: `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
1.1 jdf 352:
353: ### Installing from an unmounted file system
1.5 jdf 355: The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system.
1.7 ! sevan 356: It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), its file system type
! 357: (*File system*) and a root directory inside it (*Base directory*). The binary
! 358: sets and source sets are `.tgz` files. The default mountpoint in `mnt` in
! 359: amd64. The path is formed as follows:
! 361: /<default mountpoint>/<Base directory>/<Binary set directory> or <Source set directory>/set.tgz
! 363: Choose a combination of *Base directory* and *Binary set directory* (or *Source set directory*) that generates a valid path in your unmounted filesystem. If more than one consecutive `/` appear, only the first `/` will actually be considered. You need to specify a *Source set directory* only if you previously chose to install some sources. Source sets are usually not included in the installation images.
1.1 jdf 364:
1.5 jdf 365: In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system,
1.1 jdf 366: on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
368: ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)
369: **Mounting a file system**
1.7 ! sevan 371: Specify the device name and the partition. The
1.1 jdf 372: following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
374: ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)
375: **Mounting a partition**
1.7 ! sevan 377: In the next figure, the file system type specified is `msdos`. This value is
! 378: used to form the command `mount_<File system>` to mount the volume. Any string
! 379: (representing a "File system" type) which forms a valid command is accepted: for
! 380: example, the NetBSD file system "ffs" or "ext2fs", a Linux file system.
! 381: In this example, the *Base directory* item is left blank and the binary sets are
! 382: stored under `/sets`, so that the path becomes:
! 384: /mnt///sets
! 386: Ignoring the multiple /, this is equivalent to /mnt/sets and it is a valid one.
1.1 jdf 387: Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
389: ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)
390: **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
1.7 ! sevan 392: ### Installing via FTP and Network configuration
1.1 jdf 393:
1.5 jdf 394: If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst
1.7 ! sevan 395: must be instructed to properly get the distribution sets, as shown below.
! 397: The defaults work most of the time. You also need to configure your network
! 398: connection, before proceeding: go to the corresponding menu item, pressing
! 399: letter *j*.
1.1 jdf 400:
1.5 jdf 401: NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless,
402: and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported
1.1 jdf 403: during installation.
1.5 jdf 405: The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting
406: which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available
1.1 jdf 407: network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
1.5 jdf 409: *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you
410: use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000
411: and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This
1.1 jdf 412: list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
1.5 jdf 414: To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the
1.1 jdf 415: installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
417: # ifconfig -a
1.7 ! sevan 418: wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
! 419: capabilities=2bf80<TSO4,IP4CSUM_Rx,IP4CSUM_Tx,TCP4CSUM_Rx>
! 420: capabilities=2bf80<TCP4CSUM_Tx,UDP4CSUM_Rx,UDP4CSUM_Tx,TCP6CSUM_Tx>
! 421: capabilities=2bf80<UDP6CSUM_Tx>
! 422: enabled=0
! 423: ec_capabilities=7<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,JUMBO_MTU>
! 424: ec_enabled=0
! 425: address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7
! 426: media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)
1.1 jdf 427: status: active
1.7 ! sevan 428: lo0: flags=0x8048<LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 33624
1.1 jdf 429:
1.7 ! sevan 430: If the desired interface has not been shown, get more information about all the
! 431: devices found during system boot. Type:
1.1 jdf 432:
433: # dmesg | more
1.7 ! sevan 435: As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either `exit`
! 436: or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
! 438: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium. Press *Enter* to choose the
! 439: default.
! 441: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need anything other than the default here.
! 442: If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, you may, for
! 443: example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get a list of
! 444: supported media and media options for a given network device ("wm0", for
! 445: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
1.1 jdf 446:
1.7 ! sevan 447: # ifconfig -m wm0
! 448: wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
! 449: capabilities=2bf80<TSO4,IP4CSUM_Rx,IP4CSUM_Tx,TCP4CSUM_Rx>
! 450: capabilities=2bf80<TCP4CSUM_Tx,UDP4CSUM_Rx,UDP4CSUM_Tx,TCP6CSUM_Tx>
! 451: capabilities=2bf80<UDP6CSUM_Tx>
! 452: enabled=0
! 453: ec_capabilities=7<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,JUMBO_MTU>
! 454: ec_enabled=0
! 455: address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7
! 456: media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)
! 457: status: active
! 458: supported Ethernet media:
! 459: media none
! 460: media 10baseT
! 461: media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
! 462: media 100baseTX
! 463: media 100baseTX mediaopt full-duplex
! 464: media autoselect
! 466: The several values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including
! 467: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
! 469: Return to the installation by typing `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
1.1 jdf 470:
471: ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)
472: **Which network interface to configure**
474: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
1.5 jdf 476: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the
477: default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts,
478: you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get
479: a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for
1.1 jdf 480: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
482: # ifconfig -m ne2
483: ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
484: address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
485: media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
486: status: active
487: supported Ethernet media:
488: media 10baseT
489: media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
490: media 10base2
491: media autoselect
1.5 jdf 493: The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including
1.1 jdf 494: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
496: Return to the installation by typing:
498: # fg
1.5 jdf 500: The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as
501: shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host
502: Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst
503: will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values
1.1 jdf 504: manually.
506: We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
508: ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)
509: **Using DHCP for network configuration**
1.5 jdf 511: The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The
1.1 jdf 512: values to be entered are:
514: * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
1.5 jdf 515: * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your
1.1 jdf 516: computer. Not used during installation.
1.5 jdf 517: * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in
1.1 jdf 518: *dotted quad* notation here, for example, 192.168.1.3
1.5 jdf 519: * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value
1.1 jdf 520: (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (`255.255.255.0`).
1.5 jdf 521: * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not
1.1 jdf 522: use a hostname here!
1.5 jdf 523: * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use
1.1 jdf 524: a hostname.
526: ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)
527: **Entering and configuring network data**
1.5 jdf 529: After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed,
1.1 jdf 530: and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
532: ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)
533: **Confirming network parameters**
1.5 jdf 535: sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure
536: the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing
1.1 jdf 537: if the network connection is operational.
1.5 jdf 539: Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer
1.1 jdf 540: how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
1.5 jdf 542: When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time),
1.1 jdf 543: choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
545: ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)
546: **Defining the FTP settings**
548: ### Installing via NFS
1.5 jdf 550: If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an
1.1 jdf 551: alternative to FTP.
1.5 jdf 553: *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS
1.1 jdf 554: server, a topic which is not discussed here.
1.5 jdf 556: As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host",
557: the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set
1.1 jdf 558: directory", which contains the install sets.
560: ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)
561: **NFS install screen**
1.5 jdf 563: The following image shows an example: Host `192.168.1.50` is the NFS server that
564: provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are
565: stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server.
1.1 jdf 566: Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
568: ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)
569: **NFS example**
571: ## Extracting sets
1.5 jdf 573: After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if
574: applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into
1.1 jdf 575: the new NetBSD file system.
1.5 jdf 577: After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the
1.1 jdf 578: `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
1.5 jdf 580: Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and
581: that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before
1.1 jdf 582: finishing the NetBSD installation:
584: ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)
585: **Extraction of sets completed**
587: ## System configuration
1.5 jdf 589: Having reached this point of the installation you will see the configuration
1.4 jdf 590: menu:
1.1 jdf 591:
1.4 jdf 592: ![Configuration menu](/guide/images/exinst_configuration_menu.png)
593: **Configuration menu**
595: Here, you can do the following:
597: * *Configure network* -- make changes to the network settings on the installed
1.5 jdf 598: system, i.e. either configure it or if you already did, write that
1.4 jdf 599: configuration to disk.
601: * *Timezone* -- set your time zone.
1.5 jdf 603: * *Root shell* -- this potion allows you to choose which command line
1.4 jdf 604: interpreter, also known as *shell*, will be used for the root account.
606: * *Change root password* -- set the password you will use to login in as root.
1.5 jdf 608: * *Enable installation of binary packages* -- this option enables the
1.4 jdf 609: installation of binary packages (3rd party software).
1.5 jdf 611: * *Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source* -- install the pkgsrc
612: tree for installing third-party software from source.
1.4 jdf 613:
1.5 jdf 614: * *Enable sshd* -- enable the secure shell daemon sshd(8) to allow users to
1.4 jdf 615: login over an insecure network.
617: * *Enable ntpd* -- ntpd(8) is the daemon to keep the system time accurate.
619: * *Run ntpdate at boot* -- sets the local date and time.
1.5 jdf 621: * *Enable mdnsd* -- a daemon invoked at boot time to implement Multicast DNS
1.4 jdf 622: and DNS Service Discovery.
624: #### Configure network
1.5 jdf 626: The process was already described previously, you can just call it again and
1.4 jdf 627: have the results directly written to disk.
629: #### Timezone
1.5 jdf 631: The timezone is Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) by default, and you can use the
632: two-level menu of continents/countries and cities shown in the figure below to
1.4 jdf 633: select your timezone with the Return Key.
635: ![Timezone selection](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)
1.1 jdf 636: **Selecting the system's time zone**
1.4 jdf 638: #### Root Shell
1.5 jdf 640: The default is the classic Bourne shell, sh(1). Other choices are the Korn shell
641: (ksh(1)) and the C shell(csh(1)). If, upon reading this, you don't have some
642: idea of which shell you prefer, simply use the default, as this is a highly
643: subjective decision. Should you later change your mind, root's shell can always
1.4 jdf 644: be changed with the chsh(1) command or by directly editing master.passwd(5).
646: ![Root Shell](/guide/images/exinst_rootshell.png)
647: **Root Shell**
649: #### Change root password
1.5 jdf 651: Perhaps one of the things that you would want to configurate is your root
652: password. If you don't, it is unset, i.e. you can login as root just by entering
1.4 jdf 653: the login name without a password.
655: ![Change root password](/guide/images/exinst_change_root_password.png)
656: **Change root password**
1.5 jdf 658: When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the passwd(1) utility
1.4 jdf 659: for you. Please note that the password is not echoed:
661: ![Entering root password](/guide/images/exinst_entering_root_password.png)
662: **Entering the root password**
664: #### Enable installation of binary packages
1.5 jdf 666: This option installs pkgin(1) and initialises its database. This will feel
1.4 jdf 667: familiar to users of other package tools, such as apt-get, pkg or yum.
1.5 jdf 669: Note that installing pkgin will need a network connection. If you didn't set it
1.4 jdf 670: up yet, this option will call the configuration for you.
672: ![Enable installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin.png)
673: **Enable installation of binary packages**
1.5 jdf 675: When the installation is finished, a short help is provided, and you can return
1.4 jdf 676: to the main menu:
678: ![After enabling installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin_after.png)
679: **After enabling installation of binary packages**
681: #### Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source.
1.5 jdf 683: Use this option to download the [pkgsrc](http://pkgsrc.org) tree to install
684: additional packages by source. Note that this method in many cases conflicts
685: with binary packages, so you should decide for either one of them or use
1.4 jdf 686: different directories for installing packages.
1.5 jdf 688: This will require a network connection set up, otherwise, it will ask for it
1.4 jdf 689: itself.
691: ![Fetch and unpack pkgsrc](/guide/images/exinst_fetch_and_unpack_pkgsrc.png)
692: **Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source**
1.5 jdf 694: This step will take a while, as pkgsrc consists of many small files which have
1.4 jdf 695: to be unpacked on your hard disk, and several 10MB have to be downloaded.
697: #### Enabling daemons
1.5 jdf 699: Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8) or mdnsd(8) and
700: choose whether you want to run ntpdate(8) at boot, which will set the time no
701: matter how large the gap between "real" time and you computer's time is. ntpd
1.4 jdf 702: will not set the time when the time skew is too large.
1.5 jdf 704: *Note*: You can change these settings any time you want after the installation.
705: You can either do this by directly editing the configuration files, or by
706: running sysinst(8) again (either from the running system, or from an
1.4 jdf 707: installation CD).
1.1 jdf 708:
1.5 jdf 709: *Note*: When you run this menu when you already installed NetBSD, but want to
710: configure the running system, you have to choose the hard disk NetBSD is
711: installed on. When sysinst doesn't find an NetBSD installation, it will fail,
1.4 jdf 712: and you have to choose another disk.
1.1 jdf 713:
714: ## Finishing the installation
716: At this point the installation is finished.
718: ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)
719: **Installation completed**
1.5 jdf 721: After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to
722: the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose
1.1 jdf 723: *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
725: ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)
726: **Reboot to finish installation**
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