Annotation of wikisrc/guide/exinst.mdwn, revision 1.3

1.3     ! jdf         1: **Contents**
        !             2: 
        !             3: [[!toc levels=3]]
        !             4: 
1.1       jdf         5: # Example installation
                      6: 
                      7: ## Introduction
                      8: 
                      9: This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts 
                     10: presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the 
                     11: way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the 
                     12: installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this 
                     13: chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.
                     14: 
                     15: ### Note
                     16: 
                     17: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as 
                     18: your hardware and configuration details may be different!
                     19: 
                     20: ## The installation process
                     21: 
                     22: The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part 
                     23: you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In 
                     24: the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating 
                     25: system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created 
                     26: partition(s).
                     27: 
                     28: ## Keyboard layout
                     29: 
1.2       jdf        30: [[!table data="""
                     31: US | IT | DE | FR
                     32: `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
                     33: `/` | `-` | `-` | `!`
                     34: `=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`
                     35: `:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`
                     36: `;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`
                     37: `#` | `£` | `§` | `3`
                     38: `"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`
                     39: `*` | `(` | `(` | `8`
                     40: `(` | `)` | `)` | `9`
                     41: `)` | `=` | `=` | `0`
                     42: `'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`
                     43: `` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`
                     44: `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
                     45: """]]
1.1       jdf        46: 
                     47: The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout 
                     48: during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can 
                     49: use the map in the following table.
                     50: 
                     51: ## Starting the installation
                     52: 
                     53: To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB 
                     54: drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation 
                     55: medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about 
                     56: hardware being detected.
                     57: 
                     58: ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
                     59: **Selecting the language**
                     60: 
                     61: When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation 
                     62: program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow 
                     63: the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a 
                     64: companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in 
                     65: the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or 
                     66: less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of 
                     67: the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is 
                     68: made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys, 
                     69: the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters 
                     70: displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.
                     71: 
                     72: Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
                     73: 
                     74: The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:
                     75: 
                     76: ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)  
                     77: **Selecting a keyboard type**
                     78: 
                     79: This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:
                     80: 
                     81: ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
                     82: **The sysinst main menu**
                     83: 
                     84: Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen 
                     85: , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
                     86: 
                     87: ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
                     88: **Confirming to install NetBSD**
                     89: 
                     90: After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks 
                     91: and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the 
                     92: following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`, 
                     93: the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will 
                     94: be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
                     95: 
                     96: ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
                     97: **Choosing a hard disk**
                     98: 
                     99: The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom 
                    100: installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full 
                    101: installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation* 
                    102: will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working 
                    103: system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would 
                    104: like to have installed. This step is shown here:
                    105: 
                    106: ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
                    107: **Full or custom installation**
                    108: 
                    109: If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose 
                    110: which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a 
                    111: minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
                    112: 
                    113: ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)  
                    114: **Selecting distribution sets**
                    115: 
                    116: ## MBR partitions
                    117: 
                    118: The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the 
                    119: hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition 
                    120: (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to 
                    121: create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend 
                    122: that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format 
                    123: which is compatible with other operating systems.
                    124: 
                    125: ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
                    126: **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
                    127: 
                    128: The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard 
                    129: disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and 
                    130: as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other 
                    131: partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is 
                    132: currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
                    133: 
                    134: ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)  
                    135: **fdisk**
                    136: 
                    137: Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with 
                    138: options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to 
                    139: *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the 
                    140: partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
                    141: 
                    142: You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to 
                    143: install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary 
                    144: partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with 
                    145: options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
                    146: 
                    147: ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
                    148: **Partition options**
                    149: 
                    150: To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
                    151: 
                    152:  * the type (kind) of the new partition
                    153:  * the first (start) sector of the new partition
                    154:  * the size of the new partition
                    155: 
                    156: Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type` 
                    157: option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based 
                    158: on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same 
                    159: thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in 
                    160: the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk 
                    161: (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect, 
                    162: or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
                    163: 
                    164: After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good 
                    165: idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by 
                    166: selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a 
                    167: good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both 
                    168: NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD 
                    169: bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your 
                    170: choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR 
                    171: partition table editor.
                    172: 
                    173: If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created 
                    174: overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go 
                    175: back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the 
                    176: data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which 
                    177: is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed 
                    178: anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
                    179: 
                    180: *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a 
                    181: partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the 
                    182: problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing 
                    183: schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics 
                    184: are not described in this guide.
                    185: 
                    186: On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible 
                    187: to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard 
                    188: disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
                    189: 
                    190: Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This 
                    191: screen is shown here:
                    192: 
                    193: ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
                    194: **Installing the boot selector**
                    195: 
                    196: At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been 
                    197: created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk 
                    198: partitions*.
                    199: 
                    200: *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD 
                    201: partitions*, which are different things.
                    202: 
                    203: ## Disklabel partitions
                    204: 
                    205: Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions 
                    206: to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the 
                    207: installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do 
                    208: not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
                    209: 
                    210: NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at 
                    211: the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a 
                    212: [disklabel(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
                    213: and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as 
                    214: shown here:
                    215: 
                    216: ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
                    217: **Edit partitions?**
                    218: 
                    219: When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the 
                    220: partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a 
                    221: disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
                    222: 
                    223: ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
                    224: **Setting partition sizes**
                    225: 
                    226: The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus 
                    227: swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The 
                    228: previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB. 
                    229: Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk* 
                    230: ([mfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) for 
                    231: extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate 
                    232: partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own 
                    233: experience to decide if you need this.
                    234: 
                    235: The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary, 
                    236: using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in 
                    237: the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In 
                    238: that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes 
                    239: ok*.
                    240: 
                    241: ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
                    242: **The disklabel editor**
                    243: 
                    244: There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and 
                    245: `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the 
                    246: cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an 
                    247: unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing 
                    248: screen is shown below:
                    249: 
                    250: ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
                    251: **Disklabel partition editing**
                    252: 
                    253: ## Setting the disk name
                    254: 
                    255: After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a 
                    256: name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish 
                    257: between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
                    258: 
                    259: ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
                    260: **Naming the NetBSD disk**
                    261: 
                    262: ## Last chance!
                    263: 
                    264: The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has 
                    265: been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the 
                    266: installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to 
                    267: abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by 
                    268: selecting *yes*.
                    269: 
                    270: ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
                    271: **Last chance to abort**
                    272: 
                    273: ## The disk preparation process
                    274: 
                    275: After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run 
                    276: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
                    277: to create the NetBSD partition layout and 
                    278: [newfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?newfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to 
                    279: create the file systems on the disk.
                    280: 
                    281: After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question 
                    282: (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will 
                    283: choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your 
                    284: computer's display.
                    285: 
                    286: If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use 
                    287: a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows 
                    288: changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 
                    289: no parity and one stopbit.
                    290: 
                    291: ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
                    292: **Selecting bootblocks**
                    293: 
                    294: ## Choosing the installation media
                    295: 
                    296: At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the 
                    297: installation!
                    298: 
                    299: The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file 
                    300: systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base, 
                    301: compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what 
                    302: information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can 
                    303: choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or 
                    304: nothing.
                    305: 
                    306: ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)  
                    307: **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**
                    308: 
                    309: Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find 
                    310: them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained 
                    311: in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.
                    312: 
                    313: ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
                    314: **Installation media**
                    315: 
                    316: ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD
                    317: 
                    318: When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device 
                    319: and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is 
                    320: usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE 
                    321: or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
                    322: 
                    323: ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)  
                    324: **CD-ROM/DVD installation**
                    325: 
                    326: ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name
                    327: 
                    328: If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the 
                    329: following:
                    330: 
                    331:  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
                    332: 
                    333:  2. Type the command:
                    334: 
                    335:         # dmesg
                    336: 
                    337:     This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.
                    338: 
                    339:  3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:
                    340: 
                    341:         # dmesg | more
                    342: 
                    343:  4. Go back to the installation program with the command:
                    344: 
                    345:         # fg
                    346: 
                    347: ### Installing from an unmounted file system
                    348: 
                    349: The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system. 
                    350: It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device 
                    351: (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting 
                    352: for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.
                    353: 
                    354: In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system, 
                    355: on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
                    356: 
                    357: ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
                    358: **Mounting a file system**
                    359: 
                    360: It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The 
                    361: following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
                    362: 
                    363: ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
                    364: **Mounting a partition**
                    365: 
                    366: In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it 
                    367: could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The 
                    368: *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`. 
                    369: Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
                    370: *
                    371: 
                    372: ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
                    373: **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
                    374: 
                    375: ### Installing via FTP
                    376: 
                    377: If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst 
                    378: will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files 
                    379: to a temporary directory, and then extract them.
                    380: 
                    381: NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless, 
                    382: and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported 
                    383: during installation.
                    384: 
                    385: The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting 
                    386: which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available 
                    387: network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
                    388: 
                    389: *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you 
                    390: use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000 
                    391: and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This 
                    392: list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
                    393: 
                    394: To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the 
                    395: installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
                    396: 
                    397:     # ifconfig -a
                    398:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    399:             address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5
                    400:             media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex
                    401:             status: active
                    402:             inet 0.0.0.0 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 0.0.0.0
                    403:             inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
                    404:     lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196
                    405:             inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
                    406:             inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
                    407:             inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2
                    408:     ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    409:     ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    410:     sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
                    411:     sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
                    412:     strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
                    413:     strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100 
                    414: 
                    415: To get more information about all the devices found during system startup, 
                    416: including network devices, type
                    417: 
                    418:     # dmesg | more
                    419: 
                    420: You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing
                    421: 
                    422:     # fg
                    423: 
                    424: ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
                    425: **Which network interface to configure**
                    426: 
                    427: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
                    428: 
                    429: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the 
                    430: default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, 
                    431: you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get 
                    432: a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for 
                    433: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
                    434: 
                    435:     # ifconfig -m ne2
                    436:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    437:             address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
                    438:             media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
                    439:             status: active
                    440:             supported Ethernet media:
                    441:                     media 10baseT
                    442:                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
                    443:                     media 10base2
                    444:                     media autoselect
                    445: 
                    446: The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including 
                    447: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
                    448: 
                    449: Return to the installation by typing:
                    450: 
                    451:     # fg
                    452: 
                    453: The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as 
                    454: shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host 
                    455: Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst 
                    456: will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values 
                    457: manually.
                    458: 
                    459: We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
                    460: 
                    461: ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
                    462: **Using DHCP for network configuration**
                    463: 
                    464: The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The 
                    465: values to be entered are:
                    466: 
                    467:  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
                    468:  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your 
                    469:    computer. Not used during installation.
                    470:  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in 
                    471:    *dotted quad* notation here, for example, 192.168.1.3
                    472:  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value 
                    473:    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (`255.255.255.0`).
                    474:  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not 
                    475:    use a hostname here!
                    476:  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use 
                    477:    a hostname.
                    478: 
                    479: ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
                    480: **Entering and configuring network data**
                    481: 
                    482: After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed, 
                    483: and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
                    484: 
                    485: ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
                    486: **Confirming network parameters**
                    487: 
                    488: sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure 
                    489: the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing 
                    490: if the network connection is operational.
                    491: 
                    492: Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer 
                    493: how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
                    494: 
                    495: When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time), 
                    496: choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
                    497: 
                    498: ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
                    499: **Defining the FTP settings**
                    500: 
                    501: ### Installing via NFS
                    502: 
                    503: If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an 
                    504: alternative to FTP.
                    505: 
                    506: *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS 
                    507: server, a topic which is not discussed here.
                    508: 
                    509: As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host", 
                    510: the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set 
                    511: directory", which contains the install sets.
                    512: 
                    513: ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
                    514: **NFS install screen**
                    515: 
                    516: The following image shows an example: Host `192.168.1.50` is the NFS server that 
                    517: provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are 
                    518: stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server. 
                    519: Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
                    520: 
                    521: ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
                    522: **NFS example**
                    523: 
                    524: ## Extracting sets
                    525: 
                    526: After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if 
                    527: applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into 
                    528: the new NetBSD file system.
                    529: 
                    530: After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the 
                    531: `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
                    532: 
                    533: Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and 
                    534: that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before 
                    535: finishing the NetBSD installation:
                    536: 
                    537: ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
                    538: **Extraction of sets completed**
                    539: 
                    540: ## System configuration
                    541: 
                    542: The first thing you can configure is your timezone. It is *Universal Time 
                    543: Coordinated* (UTC) by default, and you can use the two-level menu of 
                    544: continents/countries and cities shown below to select your timezone with the 
                    545: Return key. Next, press `x` followed by Return to exit timezone selection.
                    546: 
                    547: ![Selecting the system's time zone](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
                    548: **Selecting the system's time zone**
                    549: 
                    550: At this point, you are given the option to choose a password encryption scheme. 
                    551: While *DES* is the standard algorithm used on most Unix systems, *MD5*, 
                    552: *Blowfish*, and *SHA1* allow longer passwords than DES, which only uses the 
                    553: first eight characters of the password that is entered. DES is still useful for 
                    554: interoperability with other operating systems.
                    555: 
                    556: ![Selecting a password encryption scheme](/guide/images/exinst_cipher.png)  
                    557: **Selecting a password encryption scheme**
                    558: 
                    559: After choosing the password cipher you are asked if you want to set the root 
                    560: password. It is recommended to set a root password at this point for security 
                    561: reasons.
                    562: 
                    563: ![Set a root password?](/guide/images/exinst_passwd.png)  
                    564: **Set a root password?**
                    565: 
                    566: When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the 
                    567: [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
                    568: utility for you. Please note that the password is not echoed.
                    569: 
                    570: ![Setting root password](/guide/images/exinst_passwd2.png)  
                    571: **Setting root password**
                    572: 
                    573: The next menu allows you to choose which command line interpreter - also known 
                    574: as a `shell` - will be used for the root account. The default is the classic 
                    575: *Bourne shell*, 
                    576: [sh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386). Other 
                    577: choices are the *Korn shell* 
                    578: ([ksh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ksh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) and the 
                    579: *C shell* 
                    580: ([csh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?csh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)). If, 
                    581: upon reading this, you don't have some idea of which shell you prefer, simply 
                    582: use the default, as this is a highly subjective decision. Should you later 
                    583: change your mind, root's shell can always be changed.
                    584: 
                    585: ![Choosing a shell](/guide/images/exinst_shell.png)  
                    586: **Choosing a shell**
                    587: 
                    588: ## Finishing the installation
                    589: 
                    590: At this point the installation is finished.
                    591: 
                    592: ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
                    593: **Installation completed**
                    594: 
                    595: After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to 
                    596: the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose 
                    597: *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
                    598: 
                    599: ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  
                    600: **Reboot to finish installation**
                    601: 

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