Annotation of wikisrc/guide/exinst.mdwn, revision 1.2

1.1       jdf         1: # Example installation
                      3: ## Introduction
                      5: This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts 
                      6: presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the 
                      7: way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the 
                      8: installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this 
                      9: chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.
                     11: ### Note
                     13: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as 
                     14: your hardware and configuration details may be different!
                     16: ## The installation process
                     18: The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part 
                     19: you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In 
                     20: the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating 
                     21: system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created 
                     22: partition(s).
                     24: ## Keyboard layout
1.2     ! jdf        26: [[!table data="""
        !            27: US | IT | DE | FR
        !            28: `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
        !            29: `/` | `-` | `-` | `!`
        !            30: `=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`
        !            31: `:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`
        !            32: `;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`
        !            33: `#` | `£` | `§` | `3`
        !            34: `"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`
        !            35: `*` | `(` | `(` | `8`
        !            36: `(` | `)` | `)` | `9`
        !            37: `)` | `=` | `=` | `0`
        !            38: `'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`
        !            39: `` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`
        !            40: `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
        !            41: """]]
1.1       jdf        42: 
                     43: The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout 
                     44: during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can 
                     45: use the map in the following table.
                     47: ## Starting the installation
                     49: To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB 
                     50: drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation 
                     51: medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about 
                     52: hardware being detected.
                     54: ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
                     55: **Selecting the language**
                     57: When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation 
                     58: program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow 
                     59: the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a 
                     60: companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in 
                     61: the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or 
                     62: less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of 
                     63: the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is 
                     64: made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys, 
                     65: the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters 
                     66: displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.
                     68: Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
                     70: The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:
                     72: ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)  
                     73: **Selecting a keyboard type**
                     75: This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:
                     77: ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
                     78: **The sysinst main menu**
                     80: Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen 
                     81: , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
                     83: ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
                     84: **Confirming to install NetBSD**
                     86: After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks 
                     87: and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the 
                     88: following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`, 
                     89: the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will 
                     90: be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
                     92: ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
                     93: **Choosing a hard disk**
                     95: The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom 
                     96: installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full 
                     97: installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation* 
                     98: will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working 
                     99: system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would 
                    100: like to have installed. This step is shown here:
                    102: ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
                    103: **Full or custom installation**
                    105: If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose 
                    106: which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a 
                    107: minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
                    109: ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)  
                    110: **Selecting distribution sets**
                    112: ## MBR partitions
                    114: The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the 
                    115: hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition 
                    116: (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to 
                    117: create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend 
                    118: that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format 
                    119: which is compatible with other operating systems.
                    121: ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
                    122: **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
                    124: The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard 
                    125: disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and 
                    126: as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other 
                    127: partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is 
                    128: currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
                    130: ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)  
                    131: **fdisk**
                    133: Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with 
                    134: options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to 
                    135: *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the 
                    136: partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
                    138: You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to 
                    139: install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary 
                    140: partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with 
                    141: options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
                    143: ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
                    144: **Partition options**
                    146: To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
                    148:  * the type (kind) of the new partition
                    149:  * the first (start) sector of the new partition
                    150:  * the size of the new partition
                    152: Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type` 
                    153: option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based 
                    154: on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same 
                    155: thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in 
                    156: the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk 
                    157: (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect, 
                    158: or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
                    160: After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good 
                    161: idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by 
                    162: selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a 
                    163: good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both 
                    164: NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD 
                    165: bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your 
                    166: choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR 
                    167: partition table editor.
                    169: If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created 
                    170: overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go 
                    171: back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the 
                    172: data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which 
                    173: is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed 
                    174: anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
                    176: *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a 
                    177: partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the 
                    178: problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing 
                    179: schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics 
                    180: are not described in this guide.
                    182: On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible 
                    183: to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard 
                    184: disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
                    186: Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This 
                    187: screen is shown here:
                    189: ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
                    190: **Installing the boot selector**
                    192: At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been 
                    193: created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk 
                    194: partitions*.
                    196: *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD 
                    197: partitions*, which are different things.
                    199: ## Disklabel partitions
                    201: Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions 
                    202: to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the 
                    203: installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do 
                    204: not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
                    206: NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at 
                    207: the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a 
                    208: [disklabel(5)]( 
                    209: and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as 
                    210: shown here:
                    212: ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
                    213: **Edit partitions?**
                    215: When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the 
                    216: partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a 
                    217: disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
                    219: ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
                    220: **Setting partition sizes**
                    222: The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus 
                    223: swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The 
                    224: previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB. 
                    225: Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk* 
                    226: ([mfs(8)]( for 
                    227: extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate 
                    228: partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own 
                    229: experience to decide if you need this.
                    231: The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary, 
                    232: using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in 
                    233: the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In 
                    234: that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes 
                    235: ok*.
                    237: ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
                    238: **The disklabel editor**
                    240: There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and 
                    241: `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the 
                    242: cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an 
                    243: unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing 
                    244: screen is shown below:
                    246: ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
                    247: **Disklabel partition editing**
                    249: ## Setting the disk name
                    251: After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a 
                    252: name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish 
                    253: between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
                    255: ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
                    256: **Naming the NetBSD disk**
                    258: ## Last chance!
                    260: The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has 
                    261: been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the 
                    262: installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to 
                    263: abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by 
                    264: selecting *yes*.
                    266: ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
                    267: **Last chance to abort**
                    269: ## The disk preparation process
                    271: After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run 
                    272: [disklabel(8)]( 
                    273: to create the NetBSD partition layout and 
                    274: [newfs(8)]( to 
                    275: create the file systems on the disk.
                    277: After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question 
                    278: (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will 
                    279: choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your 
                    280: computer's display.
                    282: If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use 
                    283: a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows 
                    284: changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 
                    285: no parity and one stopbit.
                    287: ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
                    288: **Selecting bootblocks**
                    290: ## Choosing the installation media
                    292: At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the 
                    293: installation!
                    295: The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file 
                    296: systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base, 
                    297: compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what 
                    298: information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can 
                    299: choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or 
                    300: nothing.
                    302: ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)  
                    303: **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**
                    305: Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find 
                    306: them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained 
                    307: in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.
                    309: ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
                    310: **Installation media**
                    312: ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD
                    314: When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device 
                    315: and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is 
                    316: usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE 
                    317: or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
                    319: ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)  
                    320: **CD-ROM/DVD installation**
                    322: ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name
                    324: If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the 
                    325: following:
                    327:  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
                    329:  2. Type the command:
                    331:         # dmesg
                    333:     This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.
                    335:  3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:
                    337:         # dmesg | more
                    339:  4. Go back to the installation program with the command:
                    341:         # fg
                    343: ### Installing from an unmounted file system
                    345: The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system. 
                    346: It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device 
                    347: (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting 
                    348: for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.
                    350: In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system, 
                    351: on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
                    353: ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
                    354: **Mounting a file system**
                    356: It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The 
                    357: following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
                    359: ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
                    360: **Mounting a partition**
                    362: In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it 
                    363: could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The 
                    364: *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`. 
                    365: Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
                    366: *
                    368: ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
                    369: **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
                    371: ### Installing via FTP
                    373: If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst 
                    374: will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files 
                    375: to a temporary directory, and then extract them.
                    377: NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless, 
                    378: and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported 
                    379: during installation.
                    381: The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting 
                    382: which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available 
                    383: network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
                    385: *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you 
                    386: use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000 
                    387: and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This 
                    388: list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
                    390: To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the 
                    391: installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
                    393:     # ifconfig -a
                    394:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    395:             address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5
                    396:             media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex
                    397:             status: active
                    398:             inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast
                    399:             inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
                    400:     lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196
                    401:             inet netmask 0xff000000
                    402:             inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
                    403:             inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2
                    404:     ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    405:     ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    406:     sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
                    407:     sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
                    408:     strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
                    409:     strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100 
                    411: To get more information about all the devices found during system startup, 
                    412: including network devices, type
                    414:     # dmesg | more
                    416: You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing
                    418:     # fg
                    420: ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
                    421: **Which network interface to configure**
                    423: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
                    425: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the 
                    426: default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, 
                    427: you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get 
                    428: a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for 
                    429: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
                    431:     # ifconfig -m ne2
                    432:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
                    433:             address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
                    434:             media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
                    435:             status: active
                    436:             supported Ethernet media:
                    437:                     media 10baseT
                    438:                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
                    439:                     media 10base2
                    440:                     media autoselect
                    442: The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including 
                    443: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
                    445: Return to the installation by typing:
                    447:     # fg
                    449: The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as 
                    450: shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host 
                    451: Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst 
                    452: will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values 
                    453: manually.
                    455: We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
                    457: ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
                    458: **Using DHCP for network configuration**
                    460: The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The 
                    461: values to be entered are:
                    463:  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
                    464:  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your 
                    465:    computer. Not used during installation.
                    466:  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in 
                    467:    *dotted quad* notation here, for example,
                    468:  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value 
                    469:    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (``).
                    470:  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not 
                    471:    use a hostname here!
                    472:  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use 
                    473:    a hostname.
                    475: ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
                    476: **Entering and configuring network data**
                    478: After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed, 
                    479: and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
                    481: ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
                    482: **Confirming network parameters**
                    484: sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure 
                    485: the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing 
                    486: if the network connection is operational.
                    488: Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer 
                    489: how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
                    491: When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time), 
                    492: choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
                    494: ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
                    495: **Defining the FTP settings**
                    497: ### Installing via NFS
                    499: If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an 
                    500: alternative to FTP.
                    502: *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS 
                    503: server, a topic which is not discussed here.
                    505: As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host", 
                    506: the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set 
                    507: directory", which contains the install sets.
                    509: ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
                    510: **NFS install screen**
                    512: The following image shows an example: Host `` is the NFS server that 
                    513: provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are 
                    514: stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server. 
                    515: Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
                    517: ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
                    518: **NFS example**
                    520: ## Extracting sets
                    522: After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if 
                    523: applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into 
                    524: the new NetBSD file system.
                    526: After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the 
                    527: `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
                    529: Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and 
                    530: that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before 
                    531: finishing the NetBSD installation:
                    533: ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
                    534: **Extraction of sets completed**
                    536: ## System configuration
                    538: The first thing you can configure is your timezone. It is *Universal Time 
                    539: Coordinated* (UTC) by default, and you can use the two-level menu of 
                    540: continents/countries and cities shown below to select your timezone with the 
                    541: Return key. Next, press `x` followed by Return to exit timezone selection.
                    543: ![Selecting the system's time zone](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
                    544: **Selecting the system's time zone**
                    546: At this point, you are given the option to choose a password encryption scheme. 
                    547: While *DES* is the standard algorithm used on most Unix systems, *MD5*, 
                    548: *Blowfish*, and *SHA1* allow longer passwords than DES, which only uses the 
                    549: first eight characters of the password that is entered. DES is still useful for 
                    550: interoperability with other operating systems.
                    552: ![Selecting a password encryption scheme](/guide/images/exinst_cipher.png)  
                    553: **Selecting a password encryption scheme**
                    555: After choosing the password cipher you are asked if you want to set the root 
                    556: password. It is recommended to set a root password at this point for security 
                    557: reasons.
                    559: ![Set a root password?](/guide/images/exinst_passwd.png)  
                    560: **Set a root password?**
                    562: When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the 
                    563: [passwd(1)]( 
                    564: utility for you. Please note that the password is not echoed.
                    566: ![Setting root password](/guide/images/exinst_passwd2.png)  
                    567: **Setting root password**
                    569: The next menu allows you to choose which command line interpreter - also known 
                    570: as a `shell` - will be used for the root account. The default is the classic 
                    571: *Bourne shell*, 
                    572: [sh(1)]( Other 
                    573: choices are the *Korn shell* 
                    574: ([ksh(1)]( and the 
                    575: *C shell* 
                    576: ([csh(1)]( If, 
                    577: upon reading this, you don't have some idea of which shell you prefer, simply 
                    578: use the default, as this is a highly subjective decision. Should you later 
                    579: change your mind, root's shell can always be changed.
                    581: ![Choosing a shell](/guide/images/exinst_shell.png)  
                    582: **Choosing a shell**
                    584: ## Finishing the installation
                    586: At this point the installation is finished.
                    588: ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
                    589: **Installation completed**
                    591: After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to 
                    592: the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose 
                    593: *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
                    595: ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  
                    596: **Reboot to finish installation**

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