Annotation of wikisrc/guide/exinst.mdwn, revision 1.1

1.1     ! jdf         1: # Example installation
        !             2: 
        !             3: ## Introduction
        !             4: 
        !             5: This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts 
        !             6: presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the 
        !             7: way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the 
        !             8: installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this 
        !             9: chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.
        !            10: 
        !            11: ### Note
        !            12: 
        !            13: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as 
        !            14: your hardware and configuration details may be different!
        !            15: 
        !            16: ## The installation process
        !            17: 
        !            18: The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part 
        !            19: you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In 
        !            20: the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating 
        !            21: system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created 
        !            22: partition(s).
        !            23: 
        !            24: ## Keyboard layout
        !            25: 
        !            26:               US                 IT                 DE                 FR
        !            27:       ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------
        !            28:               -                  '                  ß                  )
        !            29:               /                  -                  -                  !
        !            30:               =                  ì                  '                  -
        !            31:               :                  ç                  Ö                  M
        !            32:               ;                  ò                  ö                  m
        !            33:               \#                 £                  §                  3
        !            34:               "                  °                  Ä                  %
        !            35:               \*                 (                  (                  8
        !            36:               (                  )                  )                  9
        !            37:               )                  =                  =                  0
        !            38:               '                  à                  ä                  ù
        !            39:               \`                 \\                 \^                 @
        !            40:               \\                 ù                  \#                 \`
        !            41: 
        !            42: XXX
        !            43: 
        !            44: The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout 
        !            45: during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can 
        !            46: use the map in the following table.
        !            47: 
        !            48: ## Starting the installation
        !            49: 
        !            50: To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB 
        !            51: drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation 
        !            52: medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about 
        !            53: hardware being detected.
        !            54: 
        !            55: ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
        !            56: **Selecting the language**
        !            57: 
        !            58: When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation 
        !            59: program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow 
        !            60: the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a 
        !            61: companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in 
        !            62: the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or 
        !            63: less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of 
        !            64: the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is 
        !            65: made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys, 
        !            66: the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters 
        !            67: displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.
        !            68: 
        !            69: Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
        !            70: 
        !            71: The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:
        !            72: 
        !            73: ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)  
        !            74: **Selecting a keyboard type**
        !            75: 
        !            76: This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:
        !            77: 
        !            78: ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
        !            79: **The sysinst main menu**
        !            80: 
        !            81: Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen 
        !            82: , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
        !            83: 
        !            84: ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
        !            85: **Confirming to install NetBSD**
        !            86: 
        !            87: After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks 
        !            88: and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the 
        !            89: following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`, 
        !            90: the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will 
        !            91: be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
        !            92: 
        !            93: ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
        !            94: **Choosing a hard disk**
        !            95: 
        !            96: The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom 
        !            97: installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full 
        !            98: installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation* 
        !            99: will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working 
        !           100: system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would 
        !           101: like to have installed. This step is shown here:
        !           102: 
        !           103: ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
        !           104: **Full or custom installation**
        !           105: 
        !           106: If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose 
        !           107: which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a 
        !           108: minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
        !           109: 
        !           110: ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)  
        !           111: **Selecting distribution sets**
        !           112: 
        !           113: ## MBR partitions
        !           114: 
        !           115: The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the 
        !           116: hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition 
        !           117: (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to 
        !           118: create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend 
        !           119: that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format 
        !           120: which is compatible with other operating systems.
        !           121: 
        !           122: ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
        !           123: **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
        !           124: 
        !           125: The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard 
        !           126: disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and 
        !           127: as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other 
        !           128: partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is 
        !           129: currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
        !           130: 
        !           131: ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)  
        !           132: **fdisk**
        !           133: 
        !           134: Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with 
        !           135: options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to 
        !           136: *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the 
        !           137: partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
        !           138: 
        !           139: You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to 
        !           140: install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary 
        !           141: partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with 
        !           142: options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
        !           143: 
        !           144: ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
        !           145: **Partition options**
        !           146: 
        !           147: To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
        !           148: 
        !           149:  * the type (kind) of the new partition
        !           150:  * the first (start) sector of the new partition
        !           151:  * the size of the new partition
        !           152: 
        !           153: Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type` 
        !           154: option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based 
        !           155: on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same 
        !           156: thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in 
        !           157: the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk 
        !           158: (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect, 
        !           159: or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
        !           160: 
        !           161: After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good 
        !           162: idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by 
        !           163: selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a 
        !           164: good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both 
        !           165: NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD 
        !           166: bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your 
        !           167: choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR 
        !           168: partition table editor.
        !           169: 
        !           170: If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created 
        !           171: overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go 
        !           172: back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the 
        !           173: data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which 
        !           174: is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed 
        !           175: anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
        !           176: 
        !           177: *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a 
        !           178: partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the 
        !           179: problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing 
        !           180: schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics 
        !           181: are not described in this guide.
        !           182: 
        !           183: On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible 
        !           184: to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard 
        !           185: disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
        !           186: 
        !           187: Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This 
        !           188: screen is shown here:
        !           189: 
        !           190: ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
        !           191: **Installing the boot selector**
        !           192: 
        !           193: At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been 
        !           194: created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk 
        !           195: partitions*.
        !           196: 
        !           197: *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD 
        !           198: partitions*, which are different things.
        !           199: 
        !           200: ## Disklabel partitions
        !           201: 
        !           202: Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions 
        !           203: to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the 
        !           204: installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do 
        !           205: not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
        !           206: 
        !           207: NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at 
        !           208: the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a 
        !           209: [disklabel(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
        !           210: and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as 
        !           211: shown here:
        !           212: 
        !           213: ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
        !           214: **Edit partitions?**
        !           215: 
        !           216: When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the 
        !           217: partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a 
        !           218: disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
        !           219: 
        !           220: ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
        !           221: **Setting partition sizes**
        !           222: 
        !           223: The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus 
        !           224: swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The 
        !           225: previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB. 
        !           226: Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk* 
        !           227: ([mfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) for 
        !           228: extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate 
        !           229: partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own 
        !           230: experience to decide if you need this.
        !           231: 
        !           232: The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary, 
        !           233: using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in 
        !           234: the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In 
        !           235: that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes 
        !           236: ok*.
        !           237: 
        !           238: ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
        !           239: **The disklabel editor**
        !           240: 
        !           241: There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and 
        !           242: `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the 
        !           243: cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an 
        !           244: unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing 
        !           245: screen is shown below:
        !           246: 
        !           247: ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
        !           248: **Disklabel partition editing**
        !           249: 
        !           250: ## Setting the disk name
        !           251: 
        !           252: After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a 
        !           253: name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish 
        !           254: between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
        !           255: 
        !           256: ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
        !           257: **Naming the NetBSD disk**
        !           258: 
        !           259: ## Last chance!
        !           260: 
        !           261: The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has 
        !           262: been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the 
        !           263: installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to 
        !           264: abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by 
        !           265: selecting *yes*.
        !           266: 
        !           267: ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
        !           268: **Last chance to abort**
        !           269: 
        !           270: ## The disk preparation process
        !           271: 
        !           272: After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run 
        !           273: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
        !           274: to create the NetBSD partition layout and 
        !           275: [newfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?newfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to 
        !           276: create the file systems on the disk.
        !           277: 
        !           278: After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question 
        !           279: (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will 
        !           280: choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your 
        !           281: computer's display.
        !           282: 
        !           283: If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use 
        !           284: a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows 
        !           285: changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 
        !           286: no parity and one stopbit.
        !           287: 
        !           288: ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
        !           289: **Selecting bootblocks**
        !           290: 
        !           291: ## Choosing the installation media
        !           292: 
        !           293: At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the 
        !           294: installation!
        !           295: 
        !           296: The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file 
        !           297: systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base, 
        !           298: compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what 
        !           299: information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can 
        !           300: choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or 
        !           301: nothing.
        !           302: 
        !           303: ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)  
        !           304: **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**
        !           305: 
        !           306: Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find 
        !           307: them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained 
        !           308: in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.
        !           309: 
        !           310: ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
        !           311: **Installation media**
        !           312: 
        !           313: ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD
        !           314: 
        !           315: When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device 
        !           316: and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is 
        !           317: usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE 
        !           318: or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
        !           319: 
        !           320: ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)  
        !           321: **CD-ROM/DVD installation**
        !           322: 
        !           323: ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name
        !           324: 
        !           325: If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the 
        !           326: following:
        !           327: 
        !           328:  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
        !           329: 
        !           330:  2. Type the command:
        !           331: 
        !           332:         # dmesg
        !           333: 
        !           334:     This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.
        !           335: 
        !           336:  3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:
        !           337: 
        !           338:         # dmesg | more
        !           339: 
        !           340:  4. Go back to the installation program with the command:
        !           341: 
        !           342:         # fg
        !           343: 
        !           344: ### Installing from an unmounted file system
        !           345: 
        !           346: The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system. 
        !           347: It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device 
        !           348: (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting 
        !           349: for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.
        !           350: 
        !           351: In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system, 
        !           352: on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
        !           353: 
        !           354: ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
        !           355: **Mounting a file system**
        !           356: 
        !           357: It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The 
        !           358: following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
        !           359: 
        !           360: ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
        !           361: **Mounting a partition**
        !           362: 
        !           363: In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it 
        !           364: could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The 
        !           365: *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`. 
        !           366: Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
        !           367: *
        !           368: 
        !           369: ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
        !           370: **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
        !           371: 
        !           372: ### Installing via FTP
        !           373: 
        !           374: If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst 
        !           375: will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files 
        !           376: to a temporary directory, and then extract them.
        !           377: 
        !           378: NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless, 
        !           379: and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported 
        !           380: during installation.
        !           381: 
        !           382: The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting 
        !           383: which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available 
        !           384: network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
        !           385: 
        !           386: *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you 
        !           387: use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000 
        !           388: and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This 
        !           389: list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
        !           390: 
        !           391: To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the 
        !           392: installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
        !           393: 
        !           394:     # ifconfig -a
        !           395:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
        !           396:             address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5
        !           397:             media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex
        !           398:             status: active
        !           399:             inet 0.0.0.0 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 0.0.0.0
        !           400:             inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
        !           401:     lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196
        !           402:             inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
        !           403:             inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
        !           404:             inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2
        !           405:     ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
        !           406:     ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
        !           407:     sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
        !           408:     sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
        !           409:     strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
        !           410:     strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100 
        !           411: 
        !           412: To get more information about all the devices found during system startup, 
        !           413: including network devices, type
        !           414: 
        !           415:     # dmesg | more
        !           416: 
        !           417: You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing
        !           418: 
        !           419:     # fg
        !           420: 
        !           421: ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
        !           422: **Which network interface to configure**
        !           423: 
        !           424: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
        !           425: 
        !           426: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the 
        !           427: default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, 
        !           428: you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get 
        !           429: a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for 
        !           430: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
        !           431: 
        !           432:     # ifconfig -m ne2
        !           433:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
        !           434:             address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
        !           435:             media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
        !           436:             status: active
        !           437:             supported Ethernet media:
        !           438:                     media 10baseT
        !           439:                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
        !           440:                     media 10base2
        !           441:                     media autoselect
        !           442: 
        !           443: The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including 
        !           444: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
        !           445: 
        !           446: Return to the installation by typing:
        !           447: 
        !           448:     # fg
        !           449: 
        !           450: The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as 
        !           451: shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host 
        !           452: Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst 
        !           453: will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values 
        !           454: manually.
        !           455: 
        !           456: We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
        !           457: 
        !           458: ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
        !           459: **Using DHCP for network configuration**
        !           460: 
        !           461: The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The 
        !           462: values to be entered are:
        !           463: 
        !           464:  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
        !           465:  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your 
        !           466:    computer. Not used during installation.
        !           467:  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in 
        !           468:    *dotted quad* notation here, for example, 192.168.1.3
        !           469:  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value 
        !           470:    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (`255.255.255.0`).
        !           471:  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not 
        !           472:    use a hostname here!
        !           473:  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use 
        !           474:    a hostname.
        !           475: 
        !           476: ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
        !           477: **Entering and configuring network data**
        !           478: 
        !           479: After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed, 
        !           480: and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
        !           481: 
        !           482: ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
        !           483: **Confirming network parameters**
        !           484: 
        !           485: sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure 
        !           486: the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing 
        !           487: if the network connection is operational.
        !           488: 
        !           489: Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer 
        !           490: how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
        !           491: 
        !           492: When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time), 
        !           493: choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
        !           494: 
        !           495: ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
        !           496: **Defining the FTP settings**
        !           497: 
        !           498: ### Installing via NFS
        !           499: 
        !           500: If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an 
        !           501: alternative to FTP.
        !           502: 
        !           503: *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS 
        !           504: server, a topic which is not discussed here.
        !           505: 
        !           506: As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host", 
        !           507: the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set 
        !           508: directory", which contains the install sets.
        !           509: 
        !           510: ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
        !           511: **NFS install screen**
        !           512: 
        !           513: The following image shows an example: Host `192.168.1.50` is the NFS server that 
        !           514: provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are 
        !           515: stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server. 
        !           516: Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
        !           517: 
        !           518: ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
        !           519: **NFS example**
        !           520: 
        !           521: ## Extracting sets
        !           522: 
        !           523: After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if 
        !           524: applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into 
        !           525: the new NetBSD file system.
        !           526: 
        !           527: After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the 
        !           528: `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
        !           529: 
        !           530: Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and 
        !           531: that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before 
        !           532: finishing the NetBSD installation:
        !           533: 
        !           534: ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
        !           535: **Extraction of sets completed**
        !           536: 
        !           537: ## System configuration
        !           538: 
        !           539: The first thing you can configure is your timezone. It is *Universal Time 
        !           540: Coordinated* (UTC) by default, and you can use the two-level menu of 
        !           541: continents/countries and cities shown below to select your timezone with the 
        !           542: Return key. Next, press `x` followed by Return to exit timezone selection.
        !           543: 
        !           544: ![Selecting the system's time zone](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
        !           545: **Selecting the system's time zone**
        !           546: 
        !           547: At this point, you are given the option to choose a password encryption scheme. 
        !           548: While *DES* is the standard algorithm used on most Unix systems, *MD5*, 
        !           549: *Blowfish*, and *SHA1* allow longer passwords than DES, which only uses the 
        !           550: first eight characters of the password that is entered. DES is still useful for 
        !           551: interoperability with other operating systems.
        !           552: 
        !           553: ![Selecting a password encryption scheme](/guide/images/exinst_cipher.png)  
        !           554: **Selecting a password encryption scheme**
        !           555: 
        !           556: After choosing the password cipher you are asked if you want to set the root 
        !           557: password. It is recommended to set a root password at this point for security 
        !           558: reasons.
        !           559: 
        !           560: ![Set a root password?](/guide/images/exinst_passwd.png)  
        !           561: **Set a root password?**
        !           562: 
        !           563: When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the 
        !           564: [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
        !           565: utility for you. Please note that the password is not echoed.
        !           566: 
        !           567: ![Setting root password](/guide/images/exinst_passwd2.png)  
        !           568: **Setting root password**
        !           569: 
        !           570: The next menu allows you to choose which command line interpreter - also known 
        !           571: as a `shell` - will be used for the root account. The default is the classic 
        !           572: *Bourne shell*, 
        !           573: [sh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386). Other 
        !           574: choices are the *Korn shell* 
        !           575: ([ksh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ksh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) and the 
        !           576: *C shell* 
        !           577: ([csh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?csh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)). If, 
        !           578: upon reading this, you don't have some idea of which shell you prefer, simply 
        !           579: use the default, as this is a highly subjective decision. Should you later 
        !           580: change your mind, root's shell can always be changed.
        !           581: 
        !           582: ![Choosing a shell](/guide/images/exinst_shell.png)  
        !           583: **Choosing a shell**
        !           584: 
        !           585: ## Finishing the installation
        !           586: 
        !           587: At this point the installation is finished.
        !           588: 
        !           589: ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
        !           590: **Installation completed**
        !           591: 
        !           592: After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to 
        !           593: the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose 
        !           594: *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
        !           595: 
        !           596: ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  
        !           597: **Reboot to finish installation**
        !           598: 

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