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 **Contents**  This page was moved to:
   [The NetBSD Guide - Example installation](//www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html)
 [[!toc levels=3]]  
 # Example installation  
 ## Introduction  
 This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts  
 presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the  
 way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the  
 installation differ depending on the NetBSD release. The examples from this  
 chapter were created with NetBSD 8.0.  
 ### Note  
 The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as  
 your hardware and configuration details may be different!  
 ## The installation process  
 The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part  
 you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In  
 the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating  
 system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created  
 ## Keyboard layout  
 The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout  
 during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can  
 use the map in the following table.  
 [[!table data="""  
 US | IT | DE | FR  
 `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`  
 `/` | `-` | `-` | `!`  
 `=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`  
 `:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`  
 `;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`  
 `#` | `£` | `§` | `3`  
 `"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`  
 `*` | `(` | `(` | `8`  
 `(` | `)` | `)` | `9`  
 `)` | `=` | `=` | `0`  
 `'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`  
 `` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`  
 `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``  
 ## Starting the installation  
 To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB  
 drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation  
 medium will be booted and it will start displaying a lot of messages on the  
 screen about hardware being detected.  
 ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)    
 **Selecting the language**  
 When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation  
 program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow  
 the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a  
 companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in  
 the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or  
 less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of  
 the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is  
 made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys,  
 the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters  
 displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return (also  
 known as "Enter") key.  
 Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.  
 The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:  
 ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)    
 **Selecting a keyboard type**  
 This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:  
 ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)    
 **The sysinst main menu**  
 Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen  
 , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:  
 ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)    
 **Confirming to install NetBSD**  
 After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks  
 and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the  
 following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`,  
 the first SATA or IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will  
 be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.  
 ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)    
 **Choosing a hard disk**  
 Then installer will ask to confirm the detected disk geometry from the  
 information provided by the BIOS. It gives almost always the right values. Choose  
 "This is the correct geometry", unless you know that the information provided by  
 your BIOS is reportedly incorrect.  
 ![Disk geometry](/guide/images/exinst_disk-geometry.png)  
 **Disk geometry**  
 ## MBR partitions  
 The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the  
 hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition  
 (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to  
 create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend  
 that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format  
 which is compatible with other operating systems.  
 ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)    
 **Choosing the partitioning scheme**  
 The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard  
 disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and  
 as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other  
 partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is  
 currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.  
 Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with  
 options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to  
 *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the  
 partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.  
 You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to  
 install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary  
 partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with  
 options for that partition will appear, as shown here:  
 ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)    
 **Partition options**  
 To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:  
  * the type (kind) of the new partition  
  * the first (start) sector of the new partition  
  * the size of the new partition  
 Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type`  
 option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based  
 on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same  
 thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in  
 the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk  
 (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect,  
 or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.  
 After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good  
 idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by  
 selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`.  
 Repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both  
 NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD  
 bootselector. You can also choose one of the labelled partitions as default for  
 the boot menu. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your  
 choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR  
 partition table editor.  
 If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created  
 overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest to go  
 back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the  
 data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which  
 is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed  
 anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.  
 *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a  
 partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the  
 problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing  
 schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics  
 are not described in this guide.  
 On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible  
 to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard  
 disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.  
 Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This  
 screen is shown here:  
 ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)    
 **Installing the boot selector**  
 At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been  
 created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk  
 *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD  
 partitions*, which are different things.  
 ## Disklabel partitions  
 Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions  
 to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the  
 installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do  
 not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.  
 NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at  
 the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a  
 [[!template id=man name="disklabel" section="5"]]  
 and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as  
 shown here:  
 ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)    
 **Edit partitions?**  
 When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the  
 partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a  
 disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:  
 ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)    
 **Setting partition sizes**  
 The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus  
 swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The  
 previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 4096 MB.  
 Note also that partition / is marked with a "+", so it will occupy all the remaining free space (not located for any other partition).  
 Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk*  
 ([[!template id=man name="mount_tmpfs" section="8"]] or [[!template id=man name="mfs" section="8"]]) for  
 extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate  
 partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own  
 experience to decide if you need this. When you completed the definition of all the desired partitions, choose *Accept partition sizes*.  
 The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary,  
 using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in  
 the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In  
 that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes  
 ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)    
 **The disklabel editor**  
 In the amd64 port, there are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and  
 `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the  
 cursor keys and pressing the return key or using the corresponding letters. You can add a partition by selecting an  
 unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing  
 screen is shown below. When you are satisfied with all the values, choose *Partition sizes ok".  
 ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)    
 **Disklabel partition editing**  
 ## Setting the disk name  
 After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a  
 name for the NetBSD disk as shown below. This can be used later to distinguish  
 between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.  
 ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)    
 **Naming the NetBSD disk**  
 ## Last chance!  
 The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has  
 been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the  
 installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to  
 abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by  
 selecting *yes*.  
 ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)    
 **Last chance to abort**  
 ## The disk preparation process  
 After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run  
 [[!template id=man name="disklabel" section="8"]]  
 to create the NetBSD partition layout and  
 [[!template id=man name="newfs" section="8"]] to  
 create the file systems on the disk.  
 After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question  
 (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will  
 choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your  
 computer's display.  
 If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use  
 a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows  
 changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits,  
 no parity and one stopbit.  
 ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)    
 **Selecting bootblocks**  
 ## Installation type  
 The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom  
 installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full  
 installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation*  
 will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working  
 system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would  
 like to have installed. This step is shown here:  
 ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)    
 **Full or custom installation**  
 If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose  
 which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a  
 minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.  
 ## Choosing the installation media  
 At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the  
 The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file  
 systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base,  
 compiler tools, games, etc). Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you  
 must tell it where to find them: it can be the same medium where sysinst  
 resides, or a different one, according to your preferences. The menu offers  
 several choices, as shown below. The options are explained in detail in the  
 `INSTALL` documents.  
 ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)    
 **Installation media**  
 ### Installing from CD-ROM / DVD / install image media  
 Choose this option if you want to install NetBSD from either an optic medium  
 ("CD-ROM / DVD") or another medium, such as an USB drive. If the running sysinst  
 itself has been loaded from there, the corresponding device will be  
 automatically selected and the extraction of the distribution sets will begin.  
 ### The CD-ROM/DVD or other device name  
 If sysinst is not able to detect the CD-ROM/DVD or the USB flash device, you can  
 gather more information about the hardware configuration as follows:  
  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.  
  2. Type the command:  
         # dmesg  
     This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.  
  3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:  
         # dmesg | more  
    This will show the kernel startup messages, including information about not  
  detected or not configured devices. When the first CD-ROM or DVD drive in the  
  system is properly working, it is usually named `cd0`, regardless of whether it is  
  IDE or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire). The first USB flash drive is named sd0  
  when it is correctly configured.  
  4. As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either  
  `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).  
 ### Installing from an unmounted file system  
 The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system.  
 It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), its file system type  
 (*File system*) and a root directory inside it (*Base directory*). The binary  
 sets and source sets are `.tgz` files. The default mountpoint in `mnt` in  
 amd64. The path is formed as follows:  
         /<default mountpoint>/<Base directory>/<Binary set directory> or <Source set directory>/set.tgz  
 Choose a combination of *Base directory* and *Binary set directory* (or *Source set directory*) that generates a valid path in your unmounted filesystem. If more than one consecutive `/` appear, only the first `/` will actually be considered. You need to specify a *Source set directory* only if you previously chose to install some sources. Source sets are usually not included in the installation images.  
 In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system,  
 on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.  
 ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)    
 **Mounting a file system**  
 Specify the device name and the partition. The  
 following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.  
 ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)    
 **Mounting a partition**  
 In the next figure, the file system type specified is `msdos`. This value is  
 used to form the command `mount_<File system>` to mount the volume. Any string  
 (representing a "File system" type) which forms a valid command is accepted: for  
 example, the NetBSD file system "ffs" or "ext2fs", a Linux file system.  
 In this example, the *Base directory* item is left blank and the binary sets are  
 stored under `/sets`, so that the path becomes:  
 Ignoring the multiple /, this is equivalent to /mnt/sets and it is a valid one.  
 Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.  
 ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)    
 **Accessing a MSDOS file system**  
 ### Installing via FTP and Network configuration  
 If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst  
 must be instructed to properly get the distribution sets, as shown below.  
 The defaults work most of the time. You also need to configure your network  
 connection, before proceeding: go to the corresponding menu item, pressing  
 letter *j*.  
 NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless,  
 and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported  
 during installation.  
 The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting  
 which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available  
 network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.  
 *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you  
 use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000  
 and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This  
 list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.  
 To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the  
 installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter  
     # ifconfig -a  
     wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500  
             address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7  
             media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)  
             status: active  
     lo0: flags=0x8048<LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 33624  
 If the desired interface has not been shown, get more information about all the  
 devices found during system boot. Type:  
     # dmesg | more  
 As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either `exit`  
 or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).  
 Next, you have a chance to set your network medium. Press *Enter* to choose the  
 *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need anything other than the default here.  
 If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, you may, for  
 example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get a list of  
 supported media and media options for a given network device ("wm0", for  
 example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:  
     # ifconfig -m wm0  
     wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500  
             address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7  
             media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)  
             status: active  
             supported Ethernet media:  
                     media none  
                     media 10baseT  
                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex  
                     media 100baseTX  
                     media 100baseTX mediaopt full-duplex  
                     media autoselect  
 The several values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including  
 keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.  
 Return to the installation by typing `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).  
 ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)    
 **Which network interface to configure**  
 Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.  
 *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the  
 default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts,  
 you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get  
 a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for  
 example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:  
     # ifconfig -m ne2  
     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500  
             address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5  
             media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex  
             status: active  
             supported Ethernet media:  
                     media 10baseT  
                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex  
                     media 10base2  
                     media autoselect  
 The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including  
 keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.  
 Return to the installation by typing:  
     # fg  
 The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as  
 shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host  
 Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst  
 will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values  
 We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.  
 ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)    
 **Using DHCP for network configuration**  
 The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The  
 values to be entered are:  
  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.  
  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your  
    computer. Not used during installation.  
  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in  
    *dotted quad* notation here, for example,  
  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value  
    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (``).  
  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not  
    use a hostname here!  
  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use  
    a hostname.  
 ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)    
 **Entering and configuring network data**  
 After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed,  
 and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.  
 ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)    
 **Confirming network parameters**  
 sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure  
 the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing  
 if the network connection is operational.  
 Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer  
 how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.  
 When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time),  
 choose *Get Distribution* to continue.  
 ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)    
 **Defining the FTP settings**  
 ### Installing via NFS  
 If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an  
 alternative to FTP.  
 *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS  
 server, a topic which is not discussed here.  
 As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host",  
 the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set  
 directory", which contains the install sets.  
 ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)    
 **NFS install screen**  
 The following image shows an example: Host `` is the NFS server that  
 provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are  
 stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server.  
 Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.  
 ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)    
 **NFS example**  
 ## Extracting sets  
 After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if  
 applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into  
 the new NetBSD file system.  
 After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the  
 `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.  
 Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and  
 that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before  
 finishing the NetBSD installation:  
 ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)    
 **Extraction of sets completed**  
 ## System configuration  
 Having reached this point of the installation you will see the configuration  
 ![Configuration menu](/guide/images/exinst_configuration_menu.png)    
 **Configuration menu**  
 Here, you can do the following:  
  * *Configure network* -- make changes to the network settings on the installed  
    system, i.e. either configure it or if you already did, write that  
    configuration to disk.  
  * *Timezone* -- set your time zone.  
  * *Root shell* -- this potion allows you to choose which command line  
    interpreter, also known as *shell*, will be used for the root account.  
  * *Change root password* -- set the password you will use to login in as root.  
  * *Enable installation of binary packages* -- this option enables the  
    installation of binary packages (3rd party software).  
  * *Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source* -- install the pkgsrc  
    tree for installing third-party software from source.  
  * *Enable sshd* -- enable the secure shell daemon sshd(8) to allow users to  
    login over an insecure network.  
  * *Enable ntpd* -- ntpd(8) is the daemon to keep the system time accurate.  
  * *Run ntpdate at boot* -- sets the local date and time.  
  * *Enable mdnsd* -- a daemon invoked at boot time to implement Multicast DNS  
    and DNS Service Discovery.  
 #### Configure network  
 The process was already described previously, you can just call it again and  
 have the results directly written to disk.  
 #### Timezone  
 The timezone is Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) by default, and you can use the  
 two-level menu of continents/countries and cities shown in the figure below to  
 select your timezone with the Return Key.  
 ![Timezone selection](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)    
 **Selecting the system's time zone**  
 #### Root Shell  
 The default is the classic Bourne shell, sh(1). Other choices are the Korn shell  
 (ksh(1)) and the C shell(csh(1)). If, upon reading this, you don't have some  
 idea of which shell you prefer, simply use the default, as this is a highly  
 subjective decision. Should you later change your mind, root's shell can always  
 be changed with the chsh(1) command or by directly editing master.passwd(5).  
 ![Root Shell](/guide/images/exinst_rootshell.png)    
 **Root Shell**  
 #### Change root password  
 Perhaps one of the things that you would want to configurate is your root  
 password. If you don't, it is unset, i.e. you can login as root just by entering  
 the login name without a password.  
 ![Change root password](/guide/images/exinst_change_root_password.png)    
 **Change root password**  
 When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the passwd(1) utility  
 for you. Please note that the password is not echoed:  
 ![Entering root password](/guide/images/exinst_entering_root_password.png)    
 **Entering the root password**  
 #### Enable installation of binary packages  
 This option installs pkgin(1) and initialises its database. This will feel  
 familiar to users of other package tools, such as apt-get, pkg or yum.  
 Note that installing pkgin will need a network connection. If you didn't set it  
 up yet, this option will call the configuration for you.  
 ![Enable installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin.png)    
 **Enable installation of binary packages**  
 When the installation is finished, a short help is provided, and you can return  
 to the main menu:  
 ![After enabling installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin_after.png)    
 **After enabling installation of binary packages**  
 #### Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source.  
 Use this option to download the [pkgsrc](http://pkgsrc.org) tree to install  
 additional packages by source. Note that this method in many cases conflicts  
 with binary packages, so you should decide for either one of them or use  
 different directories for installing packages.  
 This will require a network connection set up, otherwise, it will ask for it  
 ![Fetch and unpack pkgsrc](/guide/images/exinst_fetch_and_unpack_pkgsrc.png)    
 **Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source**  
 This step will take a while, as pkgsrc consists of many small files which have  
 to be unpacked on your hard disk, and several 10MB have to be downloaded.  
 #### Enabling daemons  
 Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8) or mdnsd(8) and  
 choose whether you want to run ntpdate(8) at boot, which will set the time no  
 matter how large the gap between "real" time and you computer's time is. ntpd  
 will not set the time when the time skew is too large.  
 *Note*: You can change these settings any time you want after the installation.  
 You can either do this by directly editing the configuration files, or by  
 running sysinst(8) again (either from the running system, or from an  
 installation CD).  
 *Note*: When you run this menu when you already installed NetBSD, but want to  
 configure the running system, you have to choose the hard disk NetBSD is  
 installed on. When sysinst doesn't find an NetBSD installation, it will fail,  
 and you have to choose another disk.  
 ## Finishing the installation  
 At this point the installation is finished.  
 ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)    
 **Installation completed**  
 After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to  
 the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose  
 *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.  
 ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)    
 **Reboot to finish installation**  

Removed from v.1.7  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.8

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