Diff for /wikisrc/guide/exinst.mdwn between versions 1.6 and 1.7

version 1.6, 2015/06/19 19:18:31 version 1.7, 2019/05/20 22:17:18
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 This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts  This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts
 presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the  presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the
 way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the  way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the
 installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this  installation differ depending on the NetBSD release. The examples from this
 chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.  chapter were created with NetBSD 8.0.
   
 ### Note  ### Note
   
Line 27  partition(s). Line 27  partition(s).
   
 ## Keyboard layout  ## Keyboard layout
   
   The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout
   during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can
   use the map in the following table.
   
 [[!table data="""  [[!table data="""
 US | IT | DE | FR  US | IT | DE | FR
 `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`  `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
Line 44  US | IT | DE | FR Line 48  US | IT | DE | FR
 `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``  `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
 """]]  """]]
   
 The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout  
 during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can  
 use the map in the following table.  
   
 ## Starting the installation  ## Starting the installation
   
 To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB  To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB
 drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation  drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation
 medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about  medium will be booted and it will start displaying a lot of messages on the
 hardware being detected.  screen about hardware being detected.
   
 ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)    ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
 **Selecting the language**  **Selecting the language**
Line 67  less the same layout: the upper part of  Line 67  less the same layout: the upper part of 
 the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is  the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is
 made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys,  made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys,
 the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters  the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters
 displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.  displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return (also
   known as "Enter") key.
   
 Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.  Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
   
Line 90  Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard dis Line 91  Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard dis
 After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks  After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks
 and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the  and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the
 following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`,  following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`,
 the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will  the first SATA or IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will
 be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.  be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
   
 ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)    ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
 **Choosing a hard disk**  **Choosing a hard disk**
   
 The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom  Then installer will ask to confirm the detected disk geometry from the
 installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full  information provided by the BIOS. It gives almost always the right values. Choose
 installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation*  "This is the correct geometry", unless you know that the information provided by
 will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working  your BIOS is reportedly incorrect.
 system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would  
 like to have installed. This step is shown here:  
   
 ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)    
 **Full or custom installation**  
   
 If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose  
 which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a  
 minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.  
   
 ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)    ![Disk geometry](/guide/images/exinst_disk-geometry.png)
 **Selecting distribution sets**  **Disk geometry**
   
 ## MBR partitions  ## MBR partitions
   
Line 163  or if you do not want NetBSD to use the  Line 155  or if you do not want NetBSD to use the 
   
 After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good  After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good
 idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by  idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by
 selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a  selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`.
 good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both  Repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both
 NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD  NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD
 bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your  bootselector. You can also choose one of the labelled partitions as default for
   the boot menu. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your
 choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR  choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR
 partition table editor.  partition table editor.
   
 If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created  If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created
 overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go  overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest to go
 back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the  back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the
 data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which  data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which
 is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed  is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed
Line 225  disklabel based on these settings. This  Line 218  disklabel based on these settings. This 
   
 The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus  The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus
 swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The  swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The
 previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB.  previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 4096 MB.
   Note also that partition / is marked with a "+", so it will occupy all the remaining free space (not located for any other partition).
 Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk*  Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk*
 ([[!template id=man name="mfs" section="8"]]) for  ([[!template id=man name="mount_tmpfs" section="8"]] or [[!template id=man name="mfs" section="8"]]) for
 extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate  extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate
 partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own  partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own
 experience to decide if you need this.  experience to decide if you need this. When you completed the definition of all the desired partitions, choose *Accept partition sizes*.
   
 The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary,  The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary,
 using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in  using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in
Line 241  ok*. Line 235  ok*.
 ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)    ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
 **The disklabel editor**  **The disklabel editor**
   
 There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and  In the amd64 port, there are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and
 `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the  `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the
 cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an  cursor keys and pressing the return key or using the corresponding letters. You can add a partition by selecting an
 unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing  unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing
 screen is shown below:  screen is shown below. When you are satisfied with all the values, choose *Partition sizes ok".
   
 ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)    ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
 **Disklabel partition editing**  **Disklabel partition editing**
Line 253  screen is shown below: Line 247  screen is shown below:
 ## Setting the disk name  ## Setting the disk name
   
 After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a  After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a
 name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish  name for the NetBSD disk as shown below. This can be used later to distinguish
 between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.  between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
   
 ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)    ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
Line 291  no parity and one stopbit. Line 285  no parity and one stopbit.
 ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)    ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
 **Selecting bootblocks**  **Selecting bootblocks**
   
   ## Installation type
   
   The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom
   installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full
   installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation*
   will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working
   system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would
   like to have installed. This step is shown here:
   
   ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
   **Full or custom installation**
   
   If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose
   which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a
   minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
   
 ## Choosing the installation media  ## Choosing the installation media
   
 At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the  At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the
Line 298  installation! Line 308  installation!
   
 The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file  The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file
 systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base,  systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base,
 compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what  compiler tools, games, etc). Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you
 information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can  must tell it where to find them: it can be the same medium where sysinst
 choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or  resides, or a different one, according to your preferences. The menu offers
 nothing.  several choices, as shown below. The options are explained in detail in the
   `INSTALL` documents.
 ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)    
 **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**  
   
 Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find  
 them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained  
 in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.  
   
 ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)    ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
 **Installation media**  **Installation media**
   
 ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD  ### Installing from CD-ROM / DVD / install image media
   
 When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device  
 and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is  
 usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE  
 or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).  
   
 ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)    Choose this option if you want to install NetBSD from either an optic medium
 **CD-ROM/DVD installation**  ("CD-ROM / DVD") or another medium, such as an USB drive. If the running sysinst
   itself has been loaded from there, the corresponding device will be
   automatically selected and the extraction of the distribution sets will begin.
   
 ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name  ### The CD-ROM/DVD or other device name
   
 If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the  If sysinst is not able to detect the CD-ROM/DVD or the USB flash device, you can
 following:  gather more information about the hardware configuration as follows:
   
  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.   1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
   
Line 340  following: Line 341  following:
   
         # dmesg | more          # dmesg | more
   
  4. Go back to the installation program with the command:     This will show the kernel startup messages, including information about not
    detected or not configured devices. When the first CD-ROM or DVD drive in the
    system is properly working, it is usually named `cd0`, regardless of whether it is
    IDE or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire). The first USB flash drive is named sd0
    when it is correctly configured.
   
         # fg   4. As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either
    `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
   
 ### Installing from an unmounted file system  ### Installing from an unmounted file system
   
 The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system.  The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system.
 It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device  It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), its file system type
 (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting  (*File system*) and a root directory inside it (*Base directory*). The binary
 for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.  sets and source sets are `.tgz` files. The default mountpoint in `mnt` in
   amd64. The path is formed as follows:
   
           /<default mountpoint>/<Base directory>/<Binary set directory> or <Source set directory>/set.tgz
   
   Choose a combination of *Base directory* and *Binary set directory* (or *Source set directory*) that generates a valid path in your unmounted filesystem. If more than one consecutive `/` appear, only the first `/` will actually be considered. You need to specify a *Source set directory* only if you previously chose to install some sources. Source sets are usually not included in the installation images.
   
 In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system,  In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system,
 on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.  on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
Line 357  on partition `e` on the device `sd0`. Line 368  on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
 ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)    ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
 **Mounting a file system**  **Mounting a file system**
   
 It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The  Specify the device name and the partition. The
 following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.  following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
   
 ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)    ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
 **Mounting a partition**  **Mounting a partition**
   
 In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it  In the next figure, the file system type specified is `msdos`. This value is
 could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The  used to form the command `mount_<File system>` to mount the volume. Any string
 *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`.  (representing a "File system" type) which forms a valid command is accepted: for
   example, the NetBSD file system "ffs" or "ext2fs", a Linux file system.
   In this example, the *Base directory* item is left blank and the binary sets are
   stored under `/sets`, so that the path becomes:
   
           /mnt///sets
   
   Ignoring the multiple /, this is equivalent to /mnt/sets and it is a valid one.
 Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.  Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
 *  
   
 ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)    ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
 **Accessing a MSDOS file system**  **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
   
 ### Installing via FTP  ### Installing via FTP and Network configuration
   
 If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst  If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst
 will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files  must be instructed to properly get the distribution sets, as shown below.
 to a temporary directory, and then extract them.  
   The defaults work most of the time. You also need to configure your network
   connection, before proceeding: go to the corresponding menu item, pressing
   letter *j*.
   
 NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless,  NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless,
 and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported  and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported
Line 395  To get a list of network interfaces avai Line 415  To get a list of network interfaces avai
 installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter  installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
   
     # ifconfig -a      # ifconfig -a
     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500      wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
             address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5              capabilities=2bf80<TSO4,IP4CSUM_Rx,IP4CSUM_Tx,TCP4CSUM_Rx>
             media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex              capabilities=2bf80<TCP4CSUM_Tx,UDP4CSUM_Rx,UDP4CSUM_Tx,TCP6CSUM_Tx>
               capabilities=2bf80<UDP6CSUM_Tx>
               enabled=0
               ec_capabilities=7<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,JUMBO_MTU>
               ec_enabled=0
               address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7
               media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)
             status: active              status: active
             inet 0.0.0.0 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 0.0.0.0      lo0: flags=0x8048<LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 33624
             inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1  
     lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196  
             inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000  
             inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128  
             inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2  
     ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500  
     ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500  
     sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296  
     sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296  
     strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100  
     strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100  
   
 To get more information about all the devices found during system startup,  If the desired interface has not been shown, get more information about all the
 including network devices, type  devices found during system boot. Type:
   
     # dmesg | more      # dmesg | more
   
 You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing  As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either `exit`
   or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
   
     # fg  Next, you have a chance to set your network medium. Press *Enter* to choose the
   default.
   
   *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need anything other than the default here.
   If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, you may, for
   example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get a list of
   supported media and media options for a given network device ("wm0", for
   example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
   
       # ifconfig -m wm0
       wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
               capabilities=2bf80<TSO4,IP4CSUM_Rx,IP4CSUM_Tx,TCP4CSUM_Rx>
               capabilities=2bf80<TCP4CSUM_Tx,UDP4CSUM_Rx,UDP4CSUM_Tx,TCP6CSUM_Tx>
               capabilities=2bf80<UDP6CSUM_Tx>
               enabled=0
               ec_capabilities=7<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,JUMBO_MTU>
               ec_enabled=0
               address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7
               media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)
               status: active
               supported Ethernet media:
                       media none
                       media 10baseT
                       media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
                       media 100baseTX
                       media 100baseTX mediaopt full-duplex
                       media autoselect
   
   The several values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including
   keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
   
   Return to the installation by typing `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
   
 ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)    ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
 **Which network interface to configure**  **Which network interface to configure**

Removed from v.1.6  
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