Diff for /wikisrc/guide/exinst.mdwn between versions 1.4 and 1.5

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 ## Introduction  ## Introduction
   
 This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts   This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts
 presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the   presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the
 way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the   way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the
 installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this   installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this
 chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.  chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.
   
 ### Note  ### Note
   
 The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as   The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as
 your hardware and configuration details may be different!  your hardware and configuration details may be different!
   
 ## The installation process  ## The installation process
   
 The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part   The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part
 you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In   you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In
 the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating   the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating
 system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created   system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created
 partition(s).  partition(s).
   
 ## Keyboard layout  ## Keyboard layout
Line 44  US | IT | DE | FR Line 44  US | IT | DE | FR
 `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``  `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
 """]]  """]]
   
 The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout   The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout
 during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can   during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can
 use the map in the following table.  use the map in the following table.
   
 ## Starting the installation  ## Starting the installation
   
 To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB   To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB
 drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation   drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation
 medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about   medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about
 hardware being detected.  hardware being detected.
   
 ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)    ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
 **Selecting the language**  **Selecting the language**
   
 When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation   When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation
 program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow   program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow
 the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a   the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a
 companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in   companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in
 the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or   the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or
 less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of   less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of
 the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is   the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is
 made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys,   made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys,
 the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters   the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters
 displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.  displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.
   
 Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.  Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
Line 81  This will bring you to the main menu of  Line 81  This will bring you to the main menu of 
 ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)    ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
 **The sysinst main menu**  **The sysinst main menu**
   
 Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen   Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen
 , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:  , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
   
 ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)    ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
 **Confirming to install NetBSD**  **Confirming to install NetBSD**
   
 After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks   After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks
 and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the   and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the
 following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`,   following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`,
 the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will   the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will
 be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.  be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
   
 ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)    ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
 **Choosing a hard disk**  **Choosing a hard disk**
   
 The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom   The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom
 installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full   installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full
 installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation*   installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation*
 will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working   will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working
 system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would   system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would
 like to have installed. This step is shown here:  like to have installed. This step is shown here:
   
 ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)    ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
 **Full or custom installation**  **Full or custom installation**
   
 If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose   If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose
 which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a   which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a
 minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.  minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
   
 ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)    ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)  
Line 115  minimum, you must select a kernel and th Line 115  minimum, you must select a kernel and th
   
 ## MBR partitions  ## MBR partitions
   
 The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the   The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the
 hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition   hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition
 (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to   (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to
 create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend   create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend
 that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format   that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format
 which is compatible with other operating systems.  which is compatible with other operating systems.
   
 ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)    ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
 **Choosing the partitioning scheme**  **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
   
 The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard   The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard
 disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and   disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and
 as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other   as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other
 partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is   partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is
 currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.  currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
   
 ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)    ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)  
 **fdisk**  **fdisk**
   
 Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with   Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with
 options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to   options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to
 *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the   *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the
 partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.  partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
   
 You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to   You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to
 install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary   install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary
 partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with   partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with
 options for that partition will appear, as shown here:  options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
   
 ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)    ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
Line 153  To create a new partition, the following Line 153  To create a new partition, the following
  * the first (start) sector of the new partition   * the first (start) sector of the new partition
  * the size of the new partition   * the size of the new partition
   
 Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type`   Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type`
 option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based   option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based
 on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same   on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same
 thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in   thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in
 the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk   the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk
 (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect,   (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect,
 or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.  or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
   
 After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good   After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good
 idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by   idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by
 selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a   selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a
 good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both   good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both
 NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD   NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD
 bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your   bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your
 choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR   choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR
 partition table editor.  partition table editor.
   
 If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created   If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created
 overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go   overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go
 back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the   back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the
 data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which   data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which
 is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed   is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed
 anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.  anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
   
 *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a   *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a
 partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the   partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the
 problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing   problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing
 schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics   schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics
 are not described in this guide.  are not described in this guide.
   
 On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible   On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible
 to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard   to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard
 disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.  disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
   
 Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This   Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This
 screen is shown here:  screen is shown here:
   
 ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)    ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
 **Installing the boot selector**  **Installing the boot selector**
   
 At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been   At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been
 created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk   created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk
 partitions*.  partitions*.
   
 *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD   *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD
 partitions*, which are different things.  partitions*, which are different things.
   
 ## Disklabel partitions  ## Disklabel partitions
   
 Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions   Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions
 to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the   to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the
 installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do   installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do
 not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.  not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
   
 NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at   NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at
 the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a   the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a
 [disklabel(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [disklabel(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
 and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as   and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as
 shown here:  shown here:
   
 ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)    ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
 **Edit partitions?**  **Edit partitions?**
   
 When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the   When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the
 partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a   partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a
 disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:  disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
   
 ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)    ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
 **Setting partition sizes**  **Setting partition sizes**
   
 The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus   The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus
 swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The   swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The
 previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB.   previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB.
 Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk*   Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk*
 ([mfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) for   ([mfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) for
 extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate   extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate
 partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own   partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own
 experience to decide if you need this.  experience to decide if you need this.
   
 The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary,   The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary,
 using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in   using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in
 the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In   the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In
 that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes   that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes
 ok*.  ok*.
   
 ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)    ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
 **The disklabel editor**  **The disklabel editor**
   
 There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and   There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and
 `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the   `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the
 cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an   cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an
 unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing   unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing
 screen is shown below:  screen is shown below:
   
 ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)    ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
Line 252  screen is shown below: Line 252  screen is shown below:
   
 ## Setting the disk name  ## Setting the disk name
   
 After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a   After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a
 name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish   name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish
 between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.  between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
   
 ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)    ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
Line 261  between disklabels of otherwise identica Line 261  between disklabels of otherwise identica
   
 ## Last chance!  ## Last chance!
   
 The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has   The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has
 been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the   been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the
 installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to   installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to
 abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by   abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by
 selecting *yes*.  selecting *yes*.
   
 ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)    ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
Line 272  selecting *yes*. Line 272  selecting *yes*.
   
 ## The disk preparation process  ## The disk preparation process
   
 After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run   After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run
 [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
 to create the NetBSD partition layout and   to create the NetBSD partition layout and
 [newfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?newfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to   [newfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?newfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to
 create the file systems on the disk.  create the file systems on the disk.
   
 After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question   After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question
 (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will   (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will
 choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your   choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your
 computer's display.  computer's display.
   
 If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use   If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use
 a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows   a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows
 changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits,   changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits,
 no parity and one stopbit.  no parity and one stopbit.
   
 ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)    ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
Line 293  no parity and one stopbit. Line 293  no parity and one stopbit.
   
 ## Choosing the installation media  ## Choosing the installation media
   
 At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the   At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the
 installation!  installation!
   
 The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file   The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file
 systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base,   systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base,
 compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what   compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what
 information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can   information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can
 choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or   choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or
 nothing.  nothing.
   
 ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)    ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)  
 **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**  **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**
   
 Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find   Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find
 them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained   them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained
 in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.  in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.
   
 ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)    ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
Line 315  in detail in the `INSTALL` documents. Line 315  in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.
   
 ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD  ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD
   
 When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device   When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device
 and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is   and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is
 usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE   usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE
 or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).  or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
   
 ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)    ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)  
Line 325  or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire). Line 325  or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
   
 ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name  ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name
   
 If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the   If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the
 following:  following:
   
  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.   1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
Line 346  following: Line 346  following:
   
 ### Installing from an unmounted file system  ### Installing from an unmounted file system
   
 The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system.   The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system.
 It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device   It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device
 (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting   (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting
 for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.  for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.
   
 In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system,   In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system,
 on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.  on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
   
 ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)    ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
 **Mounting a file system**  **Mounting a file system**
   
 It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The   It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The
 following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.  following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
   
 ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)    ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
 **Mounting a partition**  **Mounting a partition**
   
 In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it   In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it
 could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The   could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The
 *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`.   *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`.
 Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.  Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
 *  *
   
Line 374  Choosing *Continue* will start the extra Line 374  Choosing *Continue* will start the extra
   
 ### Installing via FTP  ### Installing via FTP
   
 If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst   If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst
 will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files   will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files
 to a temporary directory, and then extract them.  to a temporary directory, and then extract them.
   
 NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless,   NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless,
 and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported   and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported
 during installation.  during installation.
   
 The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting   The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting
 which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available   which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available
 network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.  network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
   
 *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you   *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you
 use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000   use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000
 and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This   and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This
 list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.  list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
   
 To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the   To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the
 installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter  installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
   
     # ifconfig -a      # ifconfig -a
Line 410  installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z Line 410  installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z
     sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296      sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
     sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296      sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
     strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100      strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
     strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100       strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100
   
 To get more information about all the devices found during system startup,   To get more information about all the devices found during system startup,
 including network devices, type  including network devices, type
   
     # dmesg | more      # dmesg | more
Line 426  You can return to the NetBSD installatio Line 426  You can return to the NetBSD installatio
   
 Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.  Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
   
 *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the   *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the
 default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts,   default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts,
 you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get   you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get
 a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for   a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for
 example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:  example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
   
     # ifconfig -m ne2      # ifconfig -m ne2
Line 443  example), escape from sysinst by pressin Line 443  example), escape from sysinst by pressin
                     media 10base2                      media 10base2
                     media autoselect                      media autoselect
   
 The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including   The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including
 keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.  keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
   
 Return to the installation by typing:  Return to the installation by typing:
   
     # fg      # fg
   
 The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as   The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as
 shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host   shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host
 Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst   Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst
 will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values   will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values
 manually.  manually.
   
 We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.  We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
Line 461  We will assume you answered *No* and go  Line 461  We will assume you answered *No* and go 
 ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)    ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
 **Using DHCP for network configuration**  **Using DHCP for network configuration**
   
 The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The   The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The
 values to be entered are:  values to be entered are:
   
  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.   * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your    * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your
    computer. Not used during installation.     computer. Not used during installation.
  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in    * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in
    *dotted quad* notation here, for example, 192.168.1.3     *dotted quad* notation here, for example, 192.168.1.3
  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value    * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value
    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (`255.255.255.0`).     (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (`255.255.255.0`).
  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not    * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not
    use a hostname here!     use a hostname here!
  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use    * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use
    a hostname.     a hostname.
   
 ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)    ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
 **Entering and configuring network data**  **Entering and configuring network data**
   
 After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed,   After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed,
 and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.  and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
   
 ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)    ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
 **Confirming network parameters**  **Confirming network parameters**
   
 sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure   sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure
 the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing   the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing
 if the network connection is operational.  if the network connection is operational.
   
 Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer   Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer
 how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.  how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
   
 When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time),   When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time),
 choose *Get Distribution* to continue.  choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
   
 ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)    ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
Line 500  choose *Get Distribution* to continue. Line 500  choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
   
 ### Installing via NFS  ### Installing via NFS
   
 If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an   If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an
 alternative to FTP.  alternative to FTP.
   
 *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS   *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS
 server, a topic which is not discussed here.  server, a topic which is not discussed here.
   
 As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host",   As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host",
 the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set   the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set
 directory", which contains the install sets.  directory", which contains the install sets.
   
 ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)    ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
 **NFS install screen**  **NFS install screen**
   
 The following image shows an example: Host `192.168.1.50` is the NFS server that   The following image shows an example: Host `192.168.1.50` is the NFS server that
 provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are   provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are
 stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server.   stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server.
 Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.  Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
   
 ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)    ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
Line 523  Choose *Continue* to start the installat Line 523  Choose *Continue* to start the installat
   
 ## Extracting sets  ## Extracting sets
   
 After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if   After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if
 applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into   applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into
 the new NetBSD file system.  the new NetBSD file system.
   
 After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the   After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the
 `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.  `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
   
 Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and   Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and
 that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before   that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before
 finishing the NetBSD installation:  finishing the NetBSD installation:
   
 ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)    ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
Line 539  finishing the NetBSD installation: Line 539  finishing the NetBSD installation:
   
 ## System configuration  ## System configuration
   
 Having reached this point of the installation you will see the configuration   Having reached this point of the installation you will see the configuration
 menu:  menu:
   
 ![Configuration menu](/guide/images/exinst_configuration_menu.png)    ![Configuration menu](/guide/images/exinst_configuration_menu.png)  
Line 548  menu: Line 548  menu:
 Here, you can do the following:  Here, you can do the following:
   
  * *Configure network* -- make changes to the network settings on the installed   * *Configure network* -- make changes to the network settings on the installed
    system, i.e. either configure it or if you already did, write that      system, i.e. either configure it or if you already did, write that
    configuration to disk.     configuration to disk.
   
  * *Timezone* -- set your time zone.   * *Timezone* -- set your time zone.
   
  * *Root shell* -- this potion allows you to choose which command line    * *Root shell* -- this potion allows you to choose which command line
    interpreter, also known as *shell*, will be used for the root account.     interpreter, also known as *shell*, will be used for the root account.
   
  * *Change root password* -- set the password you will use to login in as root.   * *Change root password* -- set the password you will use to login in as root.
   
  * *Enable installation of binary packages* -- this option enables the    * *Enable installation of binary packages* -- this option enables the
    installation of binary packages (3rd party software).     installation of binary packages (3rd party software).
   
  * *Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source* -- install the pkgsrc    * *Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source* -- install the pkgsrc
    tree for installing third-party software from source.      tree for installing third-party software from source.
   
  * *Enable sshd* -- enable the secure shell daemon sshd(8) to allow users to    * *Enable sshd* -- enable the secure shell daemon sshd(8) to allow users to
    login over an insecure network.     login over an insecure network.
   
  * *Enable ntpd* -- ntpd(8) is the daemon to keep the system time accurate.   * *Enable ntpd* -- ntpd(8) is the daemon to keep the system time accurate.
   
  * *Run ntpdate at boot* -- sets the local date and time.   * *Run ntpdate at boot* -- sets the local date and time.
   
  * *Enable mdnsd* -- a daemon invoked at boot time to implement Multicast DNS    * *Enable mdnsd* -- a daemon invoked at boot time to implement Multicast DNS
    and DNS Service Discovery.     and DNS Service Discovery.
   
 #### Configure network  #### Configure network
   
 The process was already described previously, you can just call it again and   The process was already described previously, you can just call it again and
 have the results directly written to disk.  have the results directly written to disk.
   
 #### Timezone  #### Timezone
   
 The timezone is Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) by default, and you can use the   The timezone is Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) by default, and you can use the
 two-level menu of continents/countries and cities shown in the figure below to   two-level menu of continents/countries and cities shown in the figure below to
 select your timezone with the Return Key.  select your timezone with the Return Key.
   
 ![Timezone selection](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)    ![Timezone selection](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
Line 590  select your timezone with the Return Key Line 590  select your timezone with the Return Key
   
 #### Root Shell  #### Root Shell
   
 The default is the classic Bourne shell, sh(1). Other choices are the Korn shell   The default is the classic Bourne shell, sh(1). Other choices are the Korn shell
 (ksh(1)) and the C shell(csh(1)). If, upon reading this, you don't have some   (ksh(1)) and the C shell(csh(1)). If, upon reading this, you don't have some
 idea of which shell you prefer, simply use the default, as this is a highly   idea of which shell you prefer, simply use the default, as this is a highly
 subjective decision. Should you later change your mind, root's shell can always   subjective decision. Should you later change your mind, root's shell can always
 be changed with the chsh(1) command or by directly editing master.passwd(5).  be changed with the chsh(1) command or by directly editing master.passwd(5).
   
 ![Root Shell](/guide/images/exinst_rootshell.png)    ![Root Shell](/guide/images/exinst_rootshell.png)  
Line 601  be changed with the chsh(1) command or b Line 601  be changed with the chsh(1) command or b
   
 #### Change root password  #### Change root password
   
 Perhaps one of the things that you would want to configurate is your root   Perhaps one of the things that you would want to configurate is your root
 password. If you don't, it is unset, i.e. you can login as root just by entering   password. If you don't, it is unset, i.e. you can login as root just by entering
 the login name without a password.  the login name without a password.
   
 ![Change root password](/guide/images/exinst_change_root_password.png)    ![Change root password](/guide/images/exinst_change_root_password.png)  
 **Change root password**  **Change root password**
   
 When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the passwd(1) utility   When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the passwd(1) utility
 for you. Please note that the password is not echoed:  for you. Please note that the password is not echoed:
   
 ![Entering root password](/guide/images/exinst_entering_root_password.png)    ![Entering root password](/guide/images/exinst_entering_root_password.png)  
Line 616  for you. Please note that the password i Line 616  for you. Please note that the password i
   
 #### Enable installation of binary packages  #### Enable installation of binary packages
   
 This option installs pkgin(1) and initialises its database. This will feel   This option installs pkgin(1) and initialises its database. This will feel
 familiar to users of other package tools, such as apt-get, pkg or yum.  familiar to users of other package tools, such as apt-get, pkg or yum.
   
 Note that installing pkgin will need a network connection. If you didn't set it   Note that installing pkgin will need a network connection. If you didn't set it
 up yet, this option will call the configuration for you.  up yet, this option will call the configuration for you.
   
 ![Enable installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin.png)    ![Enable installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin.png)  
 **Enable installation of binary packages**  **Enable installation of binary packages**
   
 When the installation is finished, a short help is provided, and you can return   When the installation is finished, a short help is provided, and you can return
 to the main menu:  to the main menu:
   
 ![After enabling installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin_after.png)    ![After enabling installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin_after.png)  
Line 633  to the main menu: Line 633  to the main menu:
   
 #### Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source.  #### Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source.
   
 Use this option to download the [pkgsrc](http://pkgsrc.org) tree to install   Use this option to download the [pkgsrc](http://pkgsrc.org) tree to install
 additional packages by source. Note that this method in many cases conflicts   additional packages by source. Note that this method in many cases conflicts
 with binary packages, so you should decide for either one of them or use   with binary packages, so you should decide for either one of them or use
 different directories for installing packages.  different directories for installing packages.
   
 This will require a network connection set up, otherwise, it will ask for it   This will require a network connection set up, otherwise, it will ask for it
 itself.  itself.
   
 ![Fetch and unpack pkgsrc](/guide/images/exinst_fetch_and_unpack_pkgsrc.png)    ![Fetch and unpack pkgsrc](/guide/images/exinst_fetch_and_unpack_pkgsrc.png)  
 **Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source**  **Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source**
   
 This step will take a while, as pkgsrc consists of many small files which have   This step will take a while, as pkgsrc consists of many small files which have
 to be unpacked on your hard disk, and several 10MB have to be downloaded.  to be unpacked on your hard disk, and several 10MB have to be downloaded.
   
 #### Enabling daemons  #### Enabling daemons
   
 Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8) or mdnsd(8) and   Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8) or mdnsd(8) and
 choose whether you want to run ntpdate(8) at boot, which will set the time no   choose whether you want to run ntpdate(8) at boot, which will set the time no
 matter how large the gap between "real" time and you computer's time is. ntpd   matter how large the gap between "real" time and you computer's time is. ntpd
 will not set the time when the time skew is too large.  will not set the time when the time skew is too large.
   
 *Note*: You can change these settings any time you want after the installation.   *Note*: You can change these settings any time you want after the installation.
 You can either do this by directly editing the configuration files, or by   You can either do this by directly editing the configuration files, or by
 running sysinst(8) again (either from the running system, or from an   running sysinst(8) again (either from the running system, or from an
 installation CD).  installation CD).
   
 *Note*: When you run this menu when you already installed NetBSD, but want to   *Note*: When you run this menu when you already installed NetBSD, but want to
 configure the running system, you have to choose the hard disk NetBSD is   configure the running system, you have to choose the hard disk NetBSD is
 installed on. When sysinst doesn't find an NetBSD installation, it will fail,   installed on. When sysinst doesn't find an NetBSD installation, it will fail,
 and you have to choose another disk.  and you have to choose another disk.
   
 ## Finishing the installation  ## Finishing the installation
Line 671  At this point the installation is finish Line 671  At this point the installation is finish
 ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)    ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
 **Installation completed**  **Installation completed**
   
 After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to   After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to
 the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose   the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose
 *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.  *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
   
 ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)    ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  

Removed from v.1.4  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.5


CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb