Annotation of wikisrc/guide/boot.mdwn, revision 1.5

1.5     ! jdf         1: **Contents**
        !             2: 
        !             3: [[!toc levels=3]]
        !             4: 
1.1       jdf         5: # The first steps on NetBSD
                      6: 
                      7: After installing and rebooting, the computer will boot from the hard disk. If
                      8: everything went well, you'll be looking at the login prompt within a few seconds
                      9: (or minutes, depending on your hardware). The system is not yet fully
                     10: configured, but basic configuration is easy. You will see how to quickly
                     11: configure some important things, and in doing so you will learn some basics
                     12: about how the system works.
                     13: 
                     14: ## Troubleshooting
                     15: 
                     16: ### Boot problems
                     17: 
                     18: If the system does not boot it could be that the boot manager was not installed
                     19: correctly or that there is a problem with the *MBR* (*Master Boot Record*). Boot
                     20: the machine from your install medium (CD, DVD, floppy, etc.) and when you see
                     21: the boot menu, select the option to drop to the boot prompt.
                     22: 
                     23:     type "?" or "help" for help.
                     24:     > ?
                     25:     commands are:
                     26:     boot [xdNx:][filename] [-12acdqsvxz]
                     27:          (ex. "hd0a:netbsd.old -s")
                     28:     ls [path]
                     29:     dev xd[N[x]]:
                     30:     consdev {pc|com[0123]|com[0123]kbd|auto}
                     31:     modules {enabled|disabled}
                     32:     load {path_to_module}
                     33:     multiboot [xdNx:][filename] [<args>]
                     34:     help|?
                     35:     quit
                     36:     > boot hd0a:netbsd
                     37: 
                     38: The system should now boot from the hard disk. If NetBSD does not boot correctly
                     39: from the hard disk, there is probably a Master Boot Record problem. You can
                     40: install the boot manager or modify its configuration with the **fdisk -B**
                     41: command. See [[Installing the boot manager|guide/misc#bootmanager]] for a
                     42: detailed description.
                     43: 
1.3       jdf        44: ### Misconfiguration of /etc/rc.conf
1.1       jdf        45: 
                     46: If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of
                     47: `/etc/rc.conf` (sysinst normally will), the system will drop you into *single
                     48: user mode* and show the message
                     49: 
                     50:     /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted
                     51: 
                     52: When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press `RETURN` to get to a
                     53: /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with `vt220`
                     54: (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may
                     55: need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work
                     56: properly, depending on your keyboard:
                     57: 
                     58:     # stty erase '^h'
                     59:     # stty erase '^?'
                     60: 
                     61: At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the `/etc` directory.
                     62: However, the root file system (`/`) is mounted read-only, so you will first need
                     63: to make it writable with:
                     64: 
                     65:     # mount -u -w /
                     66: 
                     67: Next, take a look at the `/etc/rc.conf` file. Modify it to your tastes, making
                     68: sure that you set `rc_configured=YES` so that you don't end up in this position
                     69: again. Default values for the various programs can be found in
                     70: `/etc/defaults/rc.conf`. More complete documentation can be found in
                     71: [rc.conf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?rc.conf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
                     72: 
                     73: When you have finished, type `exit` at the prompt to leave the single-user shell
                     74: and continue with the multi-user boot.
                     75: 
                     76: ## The man command
                     77: 
                     78: If you have never used a Unix(-like) operating system before, your best friend
                     79: is now the
                     80: [man(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?man+1+NetBSD-current) command,
                     81: which displays a manual page. The NetBSD manual pages are among the best and
                     82: most detailed you can find, although they are very technical.
                     83: 
                     84: A good manual to read after booting a new NetBSD system is
                     85: [afterboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?afterboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
                     86: It contains information about various necessary and useful configuration
                     87: settings.
                     88: 
                     89: `man name` shows the man page of the `name` command and `man -k name` shows a
                     90: list of man pages dealing with `name`. The tool
                     91: [apropos(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?apropos+1+NetBSD-current) does
                     92: a full-text search on the manpages installed on your system, sorted by
                     93: relevance.
                     94: 
                     95: To learn the basics of the `man` command, type:
                     96: 
                     97:     # man man
                     98: 
                     99: Manual pages contain not only information about commands but also descriptions
                    100: of some NetBSD features and structures. For example, take a look at the
                    101: [hier(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?hier+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) man
                    102: page, which describes in detail the layout of the filesystem used by NetBSD.
                    103: 
                    104:     # man hier
                    105: 
                    106: Other similar pages are
                    107: [release(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?release+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    108: and
                    109: [pkgsrc(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkgsrc+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
                    110: 
                    111: Manual pages are divided in several sections, depending on what they document:
                    112: 
                    113:  1. general commands (tools and utilities), see
                    114:     [intro(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    115:  2. system calls and error numbers, see
                    116:     [intro(2)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+2+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    117:  3. C libraries, see
                    118:     [intro(3)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+3+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    119:  4. special files and hardware support, see
                    120:     [intro(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    121:  5. file formats, see
                    122:     [intro(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    123:  6. games, see
                    124:     [intro(6)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+6+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    125:  7. miscellaneous information pages, see
                    126:     [intro(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    127:  8. system maintenance and operation commands, see
                    128:     [intro(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    129:  9. kernel internals, see
                    130:     [intro(9)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+9+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    131: 
                    132: You can read the introduction to each of the sections by reading the `intro`
                    133: page of the specific section (in this case, 8):
                    134: 
                    135:     # man 8 intro
                    136: 
                    137: A subject may appear in more than one section of the manual; to view a specific
                    138: page, supply the section number as an argument to the man command. For example,
                    139: `time` appears in section 1 (the time user command) and in section 3 (the time
                    140: function of the C library). To see the man page for the time C function, write:
                    141: 
                    142:     # man 3 time
                    143: 
                    144: To see all the available pages:
                    145: 
                    146:     # man -w time
                    147:     # man -a time
                    148: 
                    149: ## Editing configuration files
                    150: 
                    151: Other than a shell, a text editor is the most essential tool for NetBSD system
                    152: administration.
                    153: 
                    154: Though there is the line-editor
                    155: [ed(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ed+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386), you might
                    156: want to use the other editor provided with the NetBSD base system, named
                    157: [vi(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vi+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386). There is a
                    158: [separate chapter](guide/edit) about using vi. You should read this first, as
                    159: editing config files is essentially for using NetBSD.
                    160: 
                    161: Though vi(1) is *the* standard on Unix systems, you maybe want to get a bit used
                    162: to ed(1). vi is an descendant of ed, and the commands used in ed are applicable
                    163: for vi as well.
                    164: 
                    165: ## Login
                    166: 
                    167: For the first login you will use the `root` user, which is the only user defined
                    168: at the end of the installation. At the password prompt type the password for
                    169: root that you set during the installation. If you didn't set a password, just
                    170: press `Enter`. Note that the password isn't echoed when you type it!
                    171: 
                    172:     NetBSD/i386 (Amnesiac) (ttyE0)
                    173:     login: root
                    174:     password:
1.4       jdf       175:     We recommend creating a non-root account and using su(1) for
1.1       jdf       176:     root access.
                    177:     #
                    178: 
1.3       jdf       179: ## Changing the root password
1.1       jdf       180: 
                    181: If you did not set a password for `root` during the installation, you should use
                    182: the [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vi+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    183: command to do so now:
                    184: 
                    185:     # passwd
                    186:     Changing local password for root.
                    187:     New password:
                    188:     Retype new password:
                    189: 
                    190: Passwords are not displayed on the screen while you type.
                    191: 
                    192: Choose a password that has numbers, digits, and special characters (not space)
                    193: as well as from the upper and lower case alphabet. Do not choose any word in any
                    194: language. It is common for an intruder to use dictionary attacks.
                    195: Nonetheless, you should choose a password you can type independent of the
                    196: keyboard layout. When using some special characters, you might have problems
                    197: typing it with your local keymap later on.
                    198: 
                    199: ## Adding users
                    200: 
                    201: For security reasons, it is bad practice to login as root during regular use and
                    202: maintenance of the system. Instead, administrators are encouraged to add a
                    203: regular user, add the user to the `wheel` group, then use the
                    204: [su(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?su+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) command
                    205: when root privileges are required. NetBSD offers the
                    206: [useradd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?useradd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    207: utility to create user accounts. For example, to create a new user:
                    208: 
                    209:     # useradd -m joe
                    210: 
                    211: The defaults for the useradd command can be changed; see the
                    212: [useradd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?useradd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    213: man page.
                    214: 
                    215: User accounts that can `su` to root are required to be in the `wheel` group.
                    216: This can be done when the account is created by specifying a secondary group:
                    217: 
                    218:     # useradd -m -G wheel joe
                    219: 
                    220: As an alternative, the
                    221: [usermod(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?usermod+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    222: command can be used to add a user to an existing group:
                    223: 
                    224:     # usermod -G wheel joe
                    225: 
                    226: In case you just created a user but forgot to set a password, you can still do
                    227: that later using
                    228: [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386):
                    229: 
                    230:     # passwd joe
                    231: 
                    232: ### Note
                    233: 
                    234: You can edit `/etc/group` directly to add users to groups, but do *not* edit the
                    235: `/etc/passwd` directly; use
                    236: [vipw(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vipw+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
                    237: 
                    238: ## Shadow passwords
                    239: 
                    240: Shadow passwords are enabled by default. This means is that all passwords in
                    241: `/etc/passwd` are set to `\*`; the encrypted passwords are stored in a file that
                    242: can only be read by root: `/etc/master.passwd`. When you start
                    243: [vipw(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vipw+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to edit
                    244: the password file, the program opens a copy of `/etc/master.passwd`; when you
                    245: exit, vipw checks the validity of the copy, creates a new `/etc/passwd` and
                    246: installs the new `/etc/master.passwd` file. Finally, vipw launches
                    247: [pwd\_mkdb(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pwd_mkdb+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
                    248: which creates the files `/etc/pwd.db` and `/etc/spwd.db`, two databases which
                    249: are equivalent to `/etc/passwd` and `/etc/master.passwd` but faster to process.
                    250: 
                    251: It is very important to *always* use `vipw` and the other tools for account
                    252: administration
                    253: ([chfn(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chfn+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
                    254: [chsh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chsh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
                    255: [chpass(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chpass+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
                    256: [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386))
                    257: and to *never* directly modify `/etc/master.passwd` or `/etc/passwd`.
                    258: 
                    259: ## Changing the keyboard layout
                    260: 
                    261: If you do not have a US layout keyboard, you probably want to change keymaps.
                    262: For example, to use an italian keyboard, enter the following command:
                    263: 
                    264:     # wsconsctl -k -w encoding=it
                    265:     encoding -> it
                    266: 
                    267: To save the keyboard layout permanently, add the following line to the
                    268: `/etc/wscons.conf` file:
                    269: 
                    270:     encoding it
                    271: 
                    272: See [[Keyboard mappings|guide/cons#keyboard_mappings]] for a list of
                    273: available keymaps.
                    274: 
                    275: ## System time
                    276: 
                    277: NetBSD, like all Unix systems, uses a system clock based on Greenwich time (GMT)
                    278: and this is what you should set your system clock to. If you want to keep the
                    279: system clock set to the local time (because, for example, you have a dual boot
                    280: system with Windows installed), you must notify NetBSD by adding
                    281: `rtclocaltime=YES` to `/etc/rc.conf`:
                    282: 
                    283:     # echo rtclocaltime=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
                    284:     # sh /etc/rc.d/rtclocaltime restart
                    285: 
                    286: The number of minutes west of GMT is calculated automatically and is set in the
                    287: `kern.rtc_offset` sysctl variable.
                    288: 
                    289: To display the current setting of the `kern.rtc_offset` variable:
                    290: 
                    291:     # sysctl kern.rtc_offset
                    292:     kern.rtc_offset = -60
                    293: 
                    294: This automatic configuration only works if you have set the proper time zone by
                    295: a symbolic link `/etc/localtime`. Normally this is done as part of the install
                    296: procedure, but if for some reason it wasn't, you can set it by creating a
                    297: symbolic link from `/etc/localtime` to a file in the `/usr/share/zoneinfo`
                    298: directory.
                    299: 
                    300: The following example sets the time zone to Eastern Europe Summer Time:
                    301: 
                    302:     # ln -fs /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Helsinki /etc/localtime
                    303: 
1.2       jdf       304: ## Secure Shell ssh(1)
1.1       jdf       305: 
                    306: By default, all services are disabled in a fresh NetBSD installation, and
                    307: [ssh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ssh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) is no
                    308: exception. You may wish to enable it so you can log in to your system remotely.
                    309: Set `sshd=YES` in `/etc/rc.conf` and then start the server with the command
                    310: 
                    311:     # /etc/rc.d/sshd start
                    312: 
                    313: The first time the server is started, it will generate a new keypair, which will
                    314: be stored inside the directory `/etc/ssh`.
                    315: 
                    316: Note that you can enable sshd also by using the configuration menu of `sysinst`.
                    317: If you did this, you don't have to do it by hand (and sshd should already have
                    318: started at boot time).
                    319: 
1.3       jdf       320: ## Basic configuration in /etc/rc.conf
1.1       jdf       321: 
                    322: NetBSD uses `/etc/rc.conf` to determine what will be executed when the system
                    323: boots. Understanding this file is important. The
                    324: [rc.conf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?rc.conf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    325: manual page contains a detailed description of all available options.
                    326: 
                    327: The `/etc/defaults/rc.conf` file contains the default values for most settings.
                    328: To override a default value, the new value must be put into `/etc/rc.conf`. The
                    329: definitions there override the ones in `/etc/defaults/rc.conf` (which you should
                    330: leave unchanged).
                    331: 
                    332:     # man rc.conf
                    333: 
                    334: The first modifications are:
                    335: 
                    336:  * Set `rc_configured=YES` (this modification should already have been done by
                    337:    the installation software.)
                    338:  * Set `dhclient=YES` to configure your system's network using DHCP.
                    339:  * Define a `hostname` for your machine (use a fully qualified hostname, i.e.,
                    340:    one including domain). If you have a standalone machine you can use any name
                    341:    (for example, `vigor3.your.domain`). If your machine is connected to a
                    342:    network, you should supply the correct name.
                    343:  * If your are connected to a local network or the Internet through a router,
                    344:    set the `defaultroute` variable to the IP address of your router (sometimes
                    345:    called a `default gateway`). For example, `defaultroute=192.168.1.1`.
                    346: 
                    347: ## Basic network settings
                    348: 
                    349: To resolve the names and IP addresses of remote hosts, the system needs access
                    350: to a (remote or local) *DNS nameserver*. Tell the system which nameserver(s) to
                    351: use by adding the IP address of one or more nameservers to the
                    352: `/etc/resolv.conf` file, using the following as an example:
                    353: 
                    354:     nameserver 145.253.2.75
                    355: 
                    356: There are public name servers available, but your Internet Service Provider
                    357: should always provide some to you anyway.
                    358: 
                    359: To set the names of local hosts that are not available through DNS, edit the
                    360: `/etc/hosts` file, which has the form:
                    361: 
                    362:     IP-address  hostname  host
                    363: 
                    364: For example:
                    365: 
                    366:     192.168.1.3 vigor3.your.domain vigor3
                    367: 
                    368: ## Mounting a CD-ROM
                    369: 
                    370: New users are often surprised by the fact that although the installation program
                    371: recognized and mounted their CD-ROM perfectly, the installed system seems to
                    372: have "forgotten" how to use the CD-ROM. There is no special magic for using a
                    373: CD-ROM; you can mount it like any other file system. All you need to know is the
                    374: device name and some options to the
                    375: [mount(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mount+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    376: command. You can find the device name with the aforementioned
                    377: [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    378: command. For example, if dmesg displays:
                    379: 
                    380:     # dmesg | grep ^cd
                    381:     cd0 at atapibus0 drive 1: <ASUS CD-S400/A, , V2.1H> type 5 cdrom removable
                    382: 
                    383: the device name is `cd0`, and you can mount the CD-ROM with the following
                    384: commands:
                    385: 
                    386:     # mkdir /cdrom
                    387:     # mount -t cd9660 -o ro /dev/cd0a /cdrom
                    388: 
                    389: To make things easier, you can add a line to the `/etc/fstab` file:
                    390: 
                    391:     /dev/cd0a /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
                    392: 
                    393: Without the need to reboot, you can now mount the CD-ROM with:
                    394: 
                    395:     # mount /cdrom
                    396: 
                    397: When the CD-ROM is mounted you can't eject it manually; you will have to unmount
                    398: it before you can do that:
                    399: 
                    400:     # umount /cdrom
                    401: 
                    402: There is also a software command which unmounts the CD-ROM and ejects it:
                    403: 
                    404:     # eject /dev/cd0a
                    405: 
                    406: ## Mounting a floppy
                    407: 
                    408: To mount a floppy you must know the name of the floppy device and the file
                    409: system type of the floppy. Read the
                    410: [fdc(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?fdc+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpage
                    411: for more information about device naming, as this will differ depending on the
                    412: exact size and kind of your floppy disk. For example, to read and write a
                    413: floppy in MS-DOS format you use the following command:
                    414: 
                    415:     # mount -t msdos /dev/fd0a /mnt
                    416: 
                    417: Instead of `/mnt`, you can use another directory of your choice; you could, for
                    418: example, create a `/floppy` directory like you did for the CD-ROM. If you do a
                    419: lot of work with MS-DOS floppies, you will want to install the
                    420: [sysutils/mtools](http://pkgsrc.se/sysutils/mtools) package, which enables you
                    421: to access a MS-DOS floppy (or hard disk partition) without the need to mount it.
                    422: It is very handy for quickly copying a file to or from a floppy:
                    423: 
                    424:     # mcopy foo bar a:
                    425:     # mcopy a:baz.txt baz
                    426:     # mcopy a:\*.jpg .
                    427: 
                    428: ## Installing additional software
                    429: 
                    430: ### Using packages from pkgsrc
                    431: 
                    432: If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like
                    433: systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system,
                    434: [pkgsrc](http://www.pkgsrc.org). pkgsrc automatically handles any changes
                    435: necessary to make the software run on NetBSD. This includes the retrieval and
                    436: installation of any other packages on which the software may depend.
                    437: 
                    438: pkgsrc might have been installed already by `sysinst`, so you don't have to
                    439: install it manually.
                    440: 
                    441:  * See the [list of available
                    442:    packages](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/pkgsrc/README-all.html)
                    443: 
                    444:  * Precompiled binaries are available on the NetBSD FTP server for some ports.
                    445:    To install them the `PKG_PATH` variable needs to be adjusted in the following
                    446:    way (under the
                    447:    [sh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) shell):
                    448: 
                    449:        # export PKG_PATH="http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/<PORT>/<RELEASE-NUMBER>/All"
                    450:        # export PKG_PATH
                    451: 
                    452:    Where `<RELEASE-NUMBER>` needs to be replaced by the release number of an
                    453:    existing NetBSD release (for example, 6.1). `<PORT>` needs to be replaced by
                    454:    the Port name for the used architecture (for example, amd64)
                    455: 
                    456:    Applications can now be installed by `root` with the pkg\_add command:
                    457: 
                    458:        # pkg_add -v perl
                    459:        # pkg_add -v apache
                    460:        # pkg_add -v firefox
                    461:        # pkg_add -v kde
                    462: 
                    463:    The above commands will install the Perl programming language, Apache web
                    464:    server, Firefox web browser and the KDE desktop environment as well as all
                    465:    the packages they depend on.
                    466: 
                    467:    Installed applications can be updated in the following way:
                    468: 
                    469:        # pkg_add -uv firefox
                    470: 
                    471:    The following command will force an update of firefox and all of its
                    472:    dependencies:
                    473: 
                    474:        # pkg_add -fuuv firefox
                    475: 
                    476:    All details about package management can be found in [*The pkgsrc
                    477:    guide*](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/index.html)
                    478: 
                    479:  * Maybe you already installed
                    480:    [pkgtools/pkgin](http://pkgsrc.se/pkgtools/pkgin). `sysinst` provides an
                    481:    option to install pkgin (if not, you can install it like any other software).
                    482:    `pkgin` is a binary package manager, but more sophisticated than `pkg_add`.
                    483:    It maintains a database of packages on the server you can fetch with:
                    484: 
                    485:        # pkgin update
                    486: 
                    487:    Its usage is oriented on the package tools you have with other operating
                    488:    systems. To search the package database for a word `stat`, use
1.4       jdf       489: 
1.1       jdf       490:        # pkgin search WORD
                    491: 
                    492:    To install a package (in this case `fscd`), just type
                    493: 
                    494:        # pkgin install fscd
                    495: 
                    496:    You should read the manpage to know about more actions you can do with pkgin.
                    497: 
                    498: ### Storing third-party software
                    499: 
                    500: On many UNIX-like systems the directory structure under `/usr/local` is reserved
                    501: for applications and files which are independent of the system's software
                    502: management. This convention is the reason why most software developers expect
                    503: their software to be installed under `/usr/local`. NetBSD has no `/usr/local`
                    504: directory, but it can be created manually if needed. NetBSD does not care about
                    505: anything installed under `/usr/local`, so this task is left to you as the system
                    506: administrator.
                    507: 
                    508: ### Security alerts
                    509: 
                    510: ## Security alerts
                    511: 
                    512: By the time that you have installed your system, it is quite likely that bugs in
                    513: the release have been found. All significant and easily fixed problems will be
                    514: reported at
                    515: [http://www.NetBSD.org/support/security/](http://www.NetBSD.org/support/security/).
                    516: It is recommended that you check this page regularly.
                    517: 
                    518: ## Stopping and rebooting the system
                    519: 
                    520: Use one of the following two shutdown commands to halt or reboot the system:
                    521: 
                    522:     # shutdown -h now
                    523:     # shutdown -r now
                    524: 
                    525: Two other commands to perform the same tasks are:
                    526: 
                    527:     # halt
                    528:     # reboot
                    529: 
                    530: halt, reboot and shutdown are not synonyms: the latter is more sophisticated. On
                    531: a multiuser system you should really use shutdown, which allows you to schedule
                    532: a shutdown time and notify users. It will also take care to stop processes
                    533: properly. For more information, see the
                    534: [shutdown(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?shutdown+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
                    535: [halt(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?halt+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) and
                    536: [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    537: manpages.
                    538: 

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