Diff for /wikisrc/guide/boot.mdwn between versions 1.5 and 1.6

version 1.5, 2013/03/21 11:11:20 version 1.6, 2015/06/19 19:18:30
Line 68  Next, take a look at the `/etc/rc.conf`  Line 68  Next, take a look at the `/etc/rc.conf` 
 sure that you set `rc_configured=YES` so that you don't end up in this position  sure that you set `rc_configured=YES` so that you don't end up in this position
 again. Default values for the various programs can be found in  again. Default values for the various programs can be found in
 `/etc/defaults/rc.conf`. More complete documentation can be found in  `/etc/defaults/rc.conf`. More complete documentation can be found in
 [rc.conf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?rc.conf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).  [[!template id=man name="rc.conf" section="5"]].
   
 When you have finished, type `exit` at the prompt to leave the single-user shell  When you have finished, type `exit` at the prompt to leave the single-user shell
 and continue with the multi-user boot.  and continue with the multi-user boot.
Line 77  and continue with the multi-user boot. Line 77  and continue with the multi-user boot.
   
 If you have never used a Unix(-like) operating system before, your best friend  If you have never used a Unix(-like) operating system before, your best friend
 is now the  is now the
 [man(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?man+1+NetBSD-current) command,  [[!template id=man name="man" section="1"]] command,
 which displays a manual page. The NetBSD manual pages are among the best and  which displays a manual page. The NetBSD manual pages are among the best and
 most detailed you can find, although they are very technical.  most detailed you can find, although they are very technical.
   
 A good manual to read after booting a new NetBSD system is  A good manual to read after booting a new NetBSD system is
 [afterboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?afterboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).  [[!template id=man name="afterboot" section="8"]].
 It contains information about various necessary and useful configuration  It contains information about various necessary and useful configuration
 settings.  settings.
   
 `man name` shows the man page of the `name` command and `man -k name` shows a  `man name` shows the man page of the `name` command and `man -k name` shows a
 list of man pages dealing with `name`. The tool  list of man pages dealing with `name`. The tool
 [apropos(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?apropos+1+NetBSD-current) does  [[!template id=man name="apropos" section="1"]] does
 a full-text search on the manpages installed on your system, sorted by  a full-text search on the manpages installed on your system, sorted by
 relevance.  relevance.
   
Line 98  To learn the basics of the `man` command Line 98  To learn the basics of the `man` command
   
 Manual pages contain not only information about commands but also descriptions  Manual pages contain not only information about commands but also descriptions
 of some NetBSD features and structures. For example, take a look at the  of some NetBSD features and structures. For example, take a look at the
 [hier(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?hier+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) man  [[!template id=man name="hier" section="7"]] man
 page, which describes in detail the layout of the filesystem used by NetBSD.  page, which describes in detail the layout of the filesystem used by NetBSD.
   
     # man hier      # man hier
   
 Other similar pages are  Other similar pages are
 [release(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?release+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="release" section="7"]]
 and  and
 [pkgsrc(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkgsrc+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).  [[!template id=man name="pkgsrc" section="7"]].
   
 Manual pages are divided in several sections, depending on what they document:  Manual pages are divided in several sections, depending on what they document:
   
  1. general commands (tools and utilities), see   1. general commands (tools and utilities), see
     [intro(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="1"]]
  2. system calls and error numbers, see   2. system calls and error numbers, see
     [intro(2)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+2+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="2"]]
  3. C libraries, see   3. C libraries, see
     [intro(3)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+3+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="3"]]
  4. special files and hardware support, see   4. special files and hardware support, see
     [intro(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="4"]]
  5. file formats, see   5. file formats, see
     [intro(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="5"]]
  6. games, see   6. games, see
     [intro(6)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+6+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="6"]]
  7. miscellaneous information pages, see   7. miscellaneous information pages, see
     [intro(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="7"]]
  8. system maintenance and operation commands, see   8. system maintenance and operation commands, see
     [intro(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="8"]]
  9. kernel internals, see   9. kernel internals, see
     [intro(9)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?intro+9+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)      [[!template id=man name="intro" section="9"]]
   
 You can read the introduction to each of the sections by reading the `intro`  You can read the introduction to each of the sections by reading the `intro`
 page of the specific section (in this case, 8):  page of the specific section (in this case, 8):
Line 152  Other than a shell, a text editor is the Line 152  Other than a shell, a text editor is the
 administration.  administration.
   
 Though there is the line-editor  Though there is the line-editor
 [ed(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ed+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386), you might  [[!template id=man name="ed" section="1"]], you might
 want to use the other editor provided with the NetBSD base system, named  want to use the other editor provided with the NetBSD base system, named
 [vi(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vi+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386). There is a  [[!template id=man name="vi" section="1"]]. There is a
 [separate chapter](guide/edit) about using vi. You should read this first, as  [separate chapter](guide/edit) about using vi. You should read this first, as
 editing config files is essentially for using NetBSD.  editing config files is essentially for using NetBSD.
   
Line 179  press `Enter`. Note that the password is Line 179  press `Enter`. Note that the password is
 ## Changing the root password  ## Changing the root password
   
 If you did not set a password for `root` during the installation, you should use  If you did not set a password for `root` during the installation, you should use
 the [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vi+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  the [[!template id=man name="passwd" section="1"]]
 command to do so now:  command to do so now:
   
     # passwd      # passwd
Line 201  typing it with your local keymap later o Line 201  typing it with your local keymap later o
 For security reasons, it is bad practice to login as root during regular use and  For security reasons, it is bad practice to login as root during regular use and
 maintenance of the system. Instead, administrators are encouraged to add a  maintenance of the system. Instead, administrators are encouraged to add a
 regular user, add the user to the `wheel` group, then use the  regular user, add the user to the `wheel` group, then use the
 [su(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?su+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) command  [[!template id=man name="su" section="1"]] command
 when root privileges are required. NetBSD offers the  when root privileges are required. NetBSD offers the
 [useradd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?useradd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="useradd" section="8"]]
 utility to create user accounts. For example, to create a new user:  utility to create user accounts. For example, to create a new user:
   
     # useradd -m joe      # useradd -m joe
   
 The defaults for the useradd command can be changed; see the  The defaults for the useradd command can be changed; see the
 [useradd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?useradd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="useradd" section="8"]]
 man page.  man page.
   
 User accounts that can `su` to root are required to be in the `wheel` group.  User accounts that can `su` to root are required to be in the `wheel` group.
Line 218  This can be done when the account is cre Line 218  This can be done when the account is cre
     # useradd -m -G wheel joe      # useradd -m -G wheel joe
   
 As an alternative, the  As an alternative, the
 [usermod(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?usermod+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="usermod" section="8"]]
 command can be used to add a user to an existing group:  command can be used to add a user to an existing group:
   
     # usermod -G wheel joe      # usermod -G wheel joe
   
 In case you just created a user but forgot to set a password, you can still do  In case you just created a user but forgot to set a password, you can still do
 that later using  that later using
 [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386):  [[!template id=man name="passwd" section="1"]]:
   
     # passwd joe      # passwd joe
   
Line 233  that later using Line 233  that later using
   
 You can edit `/etc/group` directly to add users to groups, but do *not* edit the  You can edit `/etc/group` directly to add users to groups, but do *not* edit the
 `/etc/passwd` directly; use  `/etc/passwd` directly; use
 [vipw(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vipw+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).  [[!template id=man name="vipw" section="8"]].
   
 ## Shadow passwords  ## Shadow passwords
   
 Shadow passwords are enabled by default. This means is that all passwords in  Shadow passwords are enabled by default. This means is that all passwords in
 `/etc/passwd` are set to `\*`; the encrypted passwords are stored in a file that  `/etc/passwd` are set to `\*`; the encrypted passwords are stored in a file that
 can only be read by root: `/etc/master.passwd`. When you start  can only be read by root: `/etc/master.passwd`. When you start
 [vipw(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vipw+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to edit  [[!template id=man name="vipw" section="8"]] to edit
 the password file, the program opens a copy of `/etc/master.passwd`; when you  the password file, the program opens a copy of `/etc/master.passwd`; when you
 exit, vipw checks the validity of the copy, creates a new `/etc/passwd` and  exit, vipw checks the validity of the copy, creates a new `/etc/passwd` and
 installs the new `/etc/master.passwd` file. Finally, vipw launches  installs the new `/etc/master.passwd` file. Finally, vipw launches
 [pwd\_mkdb(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pwd_mkdb+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),  [[!template id=man name="pwd\_mkdb" section="8"]],
 which creates the files `/etc/pwd.db` and `/etc/spwd.db`, two databases which  which creates the files `/etc/pwd.db` and `/etc/spwd.db`, two databases which
 are equivalent to `/etc/passwd` and `/etc/master.passwd` but faster to process.  are equivalent to `/etc/passwd` and `/etc/master.passwd` but faster to process.
   
 It is very important to *always* use `vipw` and the other tools for account  It is very important to *always* use `vipw` and the other tools for account
 administration  administration
 ([chfn(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chfn+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),  ([[!template id=man name="chfn" section="1"]],
 [chsh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chsh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),  [[!template id=man name="chsh" section="1"]],
 [chpass(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chpass+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),  [[!template id=man name="chpass" section="1"]],
 [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386))  [[!template id=man name="passwd" section="1"]])
 and to *never* directly modify `/etc/master.passwd` or `/etc/passwd`.  and to *never* directly modify `/etc/master.passwd` or `/etc/passwd`.
   
 ## Changing the keyboard layout  ## Changing the keyboard layout
Line 304  The following example sets the time zone Line 304  The following example sets the time zone
 ## Secure Shell ssh(1)  ## Secure Shell ssh(1)
   
 By default, all services are disabled in a fresh NetBSD installation, and  By default, all services are disabled in a fresh NetBSD installation, and
 [ssh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ssh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) is no  [[!template id=man name="ssh" section="1"]] is no
 exception. You may wish to enable it so you can log in to your system remotely.  exception. You may wish to enable it so you can log in to your system remotely.
 Set `sshd=YES` in `/etc/rc.conf` and then start the server with the command  Set `sshd=YES` in `/etc/rc.conf` and then start the server with the command
   
Line 321  started at boot time). Line 321  started at boot time).
   
 NetBSD uses `/etc/rc.conf` to determine what will be executed when the system  NetBSD uses `/etc/rc.conf` to determine what will be executed when the system
 boots. Understanding this file is important. The  boots. Understanding this file is important. The
 [rc.conf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?rc.conf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="rc.conf" section="5"]]
 manual page contains a detailed description of all available options.  manual page contains a detailed description of all available options.
   
 The `/etc/defaults/rc.conf` file contains the default values for most settings.  The `/etc/defaults/rc.conf` file contains the default values for most settings.
Line 372  recognized and mounted their CD-ROM perf Line 372  recognized and mounted their CD-ROM perf
 have "forgotten" how to use the CD-ROM. There is no special magic for using a  have "forgotten" how to use the CD-ROM. There is no special magic for using a
 CD-ROM; you can mount it like any other file system. All you need to know is the  CD-ROM; you can mount it like any other file system. All you need to know is the
 device name and some options to the  device name and some options to the
 [mount(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mount+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="mount" section="8"]]
 command. You can find the device name with the aforementioned  command. You can find the device name with the aforementioned
 [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="dmesg" section="8"]]
 command. For example, if dmesg displays:  command. For example, if dmesg displays:
   
     # dmesg | grep ^cd      # dmesg | grep ^cd
Line 407  There is also a software command which u Line 407  There is also a software command which u
   
 To mount a floppy you must know the name of the floppy device and the file  To mount a floppy you must know the name of the floppy device and the file
 system type of the floppy. Read the  system type of the floppy. Read the
 [fdc(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?fdc+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpage  [[!template id=man name="fdc" section="4"]] manpage
 for more information about device naming, as this will differ depending on the  for more information about device naming, as this will differ depending on the
 exact size and kind of your floppy disk. For example, to read and write a  exact size and kind of your floppy disk. For example, to read and write a
 floppy in MS-DOS format you use the following command:  floppy in MS-DOS format you use the following command:
Line 444  install it manually. Line 444  install it manually.
  * Precompiled binaries are available on the NetBSD FTP server for some ports.   * Precompiled binaries are available on the NetBSD FTP server for some ports.
    To install them the `PKG_PATH` variable needs to be adjusted in the following     To install them the `PKG_PATH` variable needs to be adjusted in the following
    way (under the     way (under the
    [sh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) shell):     [[!template id=man name="sh" section="1"]] shell):
   
        # export PKG_PATH="http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/<PORT>/<RELEASE-NUMBER>/All"         # export PKG_PATH="http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/<PORT>/<RELEASE-NUMBER>/All"
        # export PKG_PATH         # export PKG_PATH
Line 531  halt, reboot and shutdown are not synony Line 531  halt, reboot and shutdown are not synony
 a multiuser system you should really use shutdown, which allows you to schedule  a multiuser system you should really use shutdown, which allows you to schedule
 a shutdown time and notify users. It will also take care to stop processes  a shutdown time and notify users. It will also take care to stop processes
 properly. For more information, see the  properly. For more information, see the
 [shutdown(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?shutdown+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),  [[!template id=man name="shutdown" section="8"]],
 [halt(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?halt+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) and  [[!template id=man name="halt" section="8"]] and
 [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)  [[!template id=man name="reboot" section="8"]]
 manpages.  manpages.
   

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  Added in v.1.6


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