File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / amazon_ec2 / build_your_own_ami.mdwn
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    1: # Build-up your own NetBSD AMI
    2: 
    3: ## Fetch and build NetBSD
    4: 
    5: EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
    6: 
    7: This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
    8: 
    9: /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to build the toolchain, which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
   10: 
   11: [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
   12: 
   13: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   14: cd /usr/
   15: # grab a recent src.tgz file (use curl(1), ftp(1), wget(1), ...)
   16: ftp -a 'http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src.tar.gz'
   17: # Decompress
   18: tar -xzpf src.tar.gz
   19: cd src
   20: # build distribution and kernel
   21: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -m amd64 -U distribution
   22: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 kernel=XEN3_DOMU
   23: # install distribution in /mnt/ec2
   24: su root ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -U -V INSTALLSETS="base etc" install=/mnt/ec2
   25: """]]
   26: 
   27: # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
   28: 
   29: /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
   30: 
   31: Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
   32: 
   33: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
   34: rc_configured=YES
   35: 
   36: ec2_init=YES
   37: sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
   38: """]]
   39: 
   40: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
   41: # Allows root to login via authentication keys
   42: PermitRootLogin without-password
   43: """]]
   44: 
   45: This file is needed if you want to login via the EC2 SSH key pair created previously:
   46: 
   47: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2_init text="""
   48: #!/bin/sh
   49: #
   50: # PROVIDE: ec2_init
   51: # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
   52: # BEFORE:  LOGIN
   53: 
   54: $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
   55: 
   56: name="ec2_init"
   57: rcvar=${name}
   58: start_cmd="ec2_init"
   59: stop_cmd=":"
   60: 
   61: METADATA_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/"
   62: SSH_KEY_URL="public-keys/0/openssh-key"
   63: HOSTNAME_URL="hostname"
   64: 
   65: SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
   66: 
   67: ec2_init()
   68: {
   69:         (
   70:         umask 022
   71:         # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
   72:         EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${SSH_KEY_URL}")
   73: 
   74:         if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
   75:                 # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
   76:                 # to root 'authorized_keys' file
   77:                 mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   78:                 touch "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
   79:                 cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   80: 
   81:                 grep -q "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
   82:                 if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
   83:                         echo "Setting EC2 SSH key pair: ${EC2_SSH_KEY##* }"
   84:                         echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
   85:                 fi
   86:         fi
   87: 
   88:         # set hostname
   89:         HOSTNAME=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${HOSTNAME_URL}")
   90:         echo "Setting EC2 hostname: ${HOSTNAME}"
   91:         echo "$HOSTNAME" > /etc/myname
   92:         hostname "$HOSTNAME"
   93:         )
   94: }
   95: 
   96: load_rc_config $name
   97: run_rc_command "$1"
   98: """]]
   99: 
  100: Create various files and directories:
  101: 
  102: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  103: cd /mnt/ec2
  104: # Add proc and kern directories
  105: mkdir grub kern proc
  106: # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
  107: echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
  108: # Basic fstab entries
  109: cat > etc/fstab << EOF
  110: /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
  111: /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2fs rw 2 2
  112: kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
  113: ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
  114: procfs     /proc    procfs rw
  115: EOF
  116: # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
  117: if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2_init ]; then
  118:     chmod 555 etc/rc.d/ec2_init
  119: fi
  120: """]]
  121: 
  122: You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
  123: 
  124: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  125: $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k /tmp/NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
  126: Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
  127: Extent size set to 8192
  128: NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
  129:         using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
  130: super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
  131:      32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
  132: Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
  133: Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
  134: $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
  135: """]]
  136: 
  137: # Upload NetBSD to EC2
  138: 
  139: We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. We will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
  140: 
  141: EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
  142: 
  143: The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
  144: 
  145: ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
  146: 
  147: Creating an instance is straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
  148: 
  149: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  150: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
  151: RESERVATION     r-1ab61377      983624114127    default
  152: INSTANCE        <strong>i-5babe737</strong>      ami-74f0061d                    pending &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled                                     ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
  153: """]]
  154: 
  155: Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
  156: 
  157: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  158: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
  159: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
  160: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
  161: """]]
  162: 
  163: ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
  164: 
  165: We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
  166: 
  167: 1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
  168: 1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
  169: 
  170: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  171: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
  172: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
  173: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
  174: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
  175: *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
  176: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
  177: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
  178: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
  179: # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
  180: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
  181: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attaching       2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
  182: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
  183: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attaching       2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
  184: *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
  185: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
  186: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
  187: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
  188: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
  189: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
  190: """]]
  191: 
  192: ## Snapshots!
  193: 
  194: Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
  195: 
  196: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  197: $ ec2-authorize default -p 22 --region us-east-1
  198: GROUP           default 
  199: PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
  200: """]]
  201: 
  202: We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz*, to our instance host:
  203: 
  204: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  205: # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
  206: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
  207:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
  208: # Upload disk image
  209: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
  210:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
  211: """]]
  212: 
  213: Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
  214: 
  215: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  216: $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
  217: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
  218: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
  219: [...]
  220: [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
  221: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
  222: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
  223: [...]
  224: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
  225: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
  226: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
  227: default=0
  228: timeout=0
  229: hiddenmenu
  230: 
  231: title NetBSD AMI
  232: root (hd0)
  233: kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
  234: EOF
  235: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
  236: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
  237: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
  238: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# sync
  239: """]]
  240: 
  241: ## Shutdown the Linux instance
  242: 
  243: We now have to detach volumes, snapshot them, then we shutdown the Linux instance.
  244: 
  245: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  246: # ec2-detach-volume vol-36f88d5e
  247: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
  248: # ec2-detach-volume vol-24f88d4c
  249: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
  250: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-36f88d5e
  251: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-deef2bb2</strong>   vol-36f88d5e    pending 2011-02-18T01:17:59+0000                983624114127    5
  252: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-24f88d4c
  253: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-8aef2be6</strong>   vol-24f88d4c    pending 2011-02-18T01:18:10+0000                983624114127    1
  254: # ec2-terminate-instances i-5babe737
  255: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running shutting-down
  256: """]]
  257: 
  258: # Playing with your first NetBSD instance
  259: 
  260: ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
  261: 
  262: An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
  263: 
  264: /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So choose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch your NetBSD instance later!
  265: 
  266: The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
  267: 
  268: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  269: # Obtain all kernel images (AKI) for region US East, for which manifest location contains pv-grub (for PyGrub)
  270: # ec2-describe-images -a --region=us-east-1 -F image-type=kernel -F manifest-location=*pv-grub*
  271: IMAGE   aki-407d9529    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml        amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
  272: <strong>IMAGE   aki-427d952b    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml      amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen</strong>
  273: IMAGE   aki-4c7d9525    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml       amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
  274: IMAGE   aki-4e7d9527    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml     amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
  275: """]]
  276: 
  277: Pick the one with the correct architecture (x86_64 here). **hd0** are for AMIs where the snapshot contains no partition (where the volume is itself the whole partition), while **hd00** are for snapshots partitioned in a classical way (via MBR). Choose **hd0** AKIs. In this case, that will be **aki-427d952b**.
  278: 
  279: We can proceed to the creation of our AMI, with:
  280: 
  281: 1. */dev/sda1* as Grub partition (*/dev/sdg*, snapshot **snap-8aef2be6** of volume **vol-24f88d4c**)
  282: 1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
  283: 
  284: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  285: $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-427d952b --region us-east-1 \
  286:     -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
  287:     -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;
  288: IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
  289: """]]
  290: 
  291: ## Launch your first instance
  292: 
  293: You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
  294: 
  295: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  296: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
  297: RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
  298: INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
  299: *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
  300: # Query console output for your new instance
  301: $ ec2-get-console-output i-953d72f9
  302: Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
  303:     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
  304:     The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  305: Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
  306:     The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
  307: 
  308: NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
  309: [...]
  310: NetBSD/amd64 (ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal) (console)
  311: 
  312: login: 
  313: """]]
  314: 
  315: ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
  316: 
  317: Connection is similar to the one you used for the Amazon Linux instance, except that you login as "root" instead of "ec2-user":
  318: 
  319: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  320: $ ec2-describe-instances i-953d72f9
  321: RESERVATION     r-da8021b7      983624114127    default
  322: INSTANCE        i-953d72f9      ami-74d0231d    <strong>ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>  ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal   running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-19T04:01:03+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     50.16.3.55      10.112.58.223                   ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
  323: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-ec3c4a84    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
  324: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda2       vol-ee3c4a86    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
  325: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" root@ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com
  326: The authenticity of host 'ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com (50.16.3.55)' can't be established.
  327: [...]
  328: Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.
  329: 
  330: Terminal type is xterm.
  331: We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
  332: ip-10-112-58-223# uname -a
  333: NetBSD ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal 5.99.45 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU amd64
  334: ip-10-112-58-223# 
  335: """]]
  336: 
  337: Done!
  338: 
  339: ## And now?
  340: 
  341: Well, you got a NetBSD instance that is in almost every part similar to what a NetBSD domU can be. You can use this domU to host Internet services, run a database, extend your build farm, or use it as a sandbox. The AMI being built around snapshots, you can play and break your instance in every way you want; just restart one anew if you need to. Don't forget that Amazon will charge acccordingly :)
  342: 
  343: Remember, you can query information regarding your AWS account through [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]] package. It is quite easy to use these tools for scripting; for a more elaborate, graphical interface, use the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).

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