Annotation of wikisrc/amazon_ec2/build_your_own_ami.mdwn, revision 1.2

1.1       wiki        1: # Build-up your own NetBSD AMI
                      2: 
                      3: ## Fetch and build NetBSD
                      4: 
                      5: EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
                      6: 
                      7: This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
                      8: 
1.2     ! wiki        9: /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to [build the toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools), which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
1.1       wiki       10: 
                     11: [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
                     12: 
                     13: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     14: cd /usr/
                     15: # grab a recent src.tgz file (use curl(1), ftp(1), wget(1), ...)
                     16: ftp -a 'http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src.tar.gz'
                     17: # Decompress
                     18: tar -xzpf src.tar.gz
                     19: cd src
1.2     ! wiki       20: # the following commands will build tools, distribution and kernel
        !            21: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 tools
1.1       wiki       22: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -m amd64 -U distribution
                     23: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 kernel=XEN3_DOMU
                     24: # install distribution in /mnt/ec2
                     25: su root ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -U -V INSTALLSETS="base etc" install=/mnt/ec2
                     26: """]]
                     27: 
                     28: # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
                     29: 
                     30: /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
                     31: 
                     32: Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
                     33: 
                     34: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
                     35: rc_configured=YES
                     36: 
                     37: ec2_init=YES
                     38: sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
                     39: """]]
                     40: 
                     41: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
                     42: # Allows root to login via authentication keys
                     43: PermitRootLogin without-password
                     44: """]]
                     45: 
                     46: This file is needed if you want to login via the EC2 SSH key pair created previously:
                     47: 
                     48: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2_init text="""
                     49: #!/bin/sh
                     50: #
                     51: # PROVIDE: ec2_init
                     52: # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
                     53: # BEFORE:  LOGIN
                     54: 
                     55: $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
                     56: 
                     57: name="ec2_init"
                     58: rcvar=${name}
                     59: start_cmd="ec2_init"
                     60: stop_cmd=":"
                     61: 
                     62: METADATA_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/"
                     63: SSH_KEY_URL="public-keys/0/openssh-key"
                     64: HOSTNAME_URL="hostname"
                     65: 
                     66: SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
                     67: 
                     68: ec2_init()
                     69: {
                     70:         (
                     71:         umask 022
                     72:         # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
                     73:         EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${SSH_KEY_URL}")
                     74: 
                     75:         if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
                     76:                 # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
                     77:                 # to root 'authorized_keys' file
                     78:                 mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                     79:                 touch "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                     80:                 cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                     81: 
                     82:                 grep -q "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                     83:                 if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                     84:                         echo "Setting EC2 SSH key pair: ${EC2_SSH_KEY##* }"
                     85:                         echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                     86:                 fi
                     87:         fi
                     88: 
                     89:         # set hostname
                     90:         HOSTNAME=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${HOSTNAME_URL}")
                     91:         echo "Setting EC2 hostname: ${HOSTNAME}"
                     92:         echo "$HOSTNAME" > /etc/myname
                     93:         hostname "$HOSTNAME"
                     94:         )
                     95: }
                     96: 
                     97: load_rc_config $name
                     98: run_rc_command "$1"
                     99: """]]
                    100: 
                    101: Create various files and directories:
                    102: 
                    103: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    104: cd /mnt/ec2
                    105: # Add proc and kern directories
                    106: mkdir grub kern proc
                    107: # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
                    108: echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
                    109: # Basic fstab entries
                    110: cat > etc/fstab << EOF
                    111: /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
                    112: /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2fs rw 2 2
                    113: kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
                    114: ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
                    115: procfs     /proc    procfs rw
                    116: EOF
                    117: # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
                    118: if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2_init ]; then
                    119:     chmod 555 etc/rc.d/ec2_init
                    120: fi
                    121: """]]
                    122: 
                    123: You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
                    124: 
                    125: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    126: $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k /tmp/NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
                    127: Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
                    128: Extent size set to 8192
                    129: NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
                    130:         using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
                    131: super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
                    132:      32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
                    133: Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
                    134: Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
                    135: $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
                    136: """]]
                    137: 
                    138: # Upload NetBSD to EC2
                    139: 
                    140: We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. We will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
                    141: 
                    142: EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
                    143: 
                    144: The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
                    145: 
                    146: ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
                    147: 
                    148: Creating an instance is straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
                    149: 
                    150: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    151: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
                    152: RESERVATION     r-1ab61377      983624114127    default
                    153: INSTANCE        <strong>i-5babe737</strong>      ami-74f0061d                    pending &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled                                     ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
                    154: """]]
                    155: 
                    156: Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
                    157: 
                    158: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    159: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
                    160: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
                    161: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
                    162: """]]
                    163: 
                    164: ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
                    165: 
                    166: We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
                    167: 
                    168: 1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
                    169: 1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
                    170: 
                    171: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    172: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
                    173: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
                    174: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
                    175: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
                    176: *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
                    177: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
                    178: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
                    179: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
                    180: # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
                    181: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
                    182: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attaching       2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
                    183: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
                    184: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attaching       2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
                    185: *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
                    186: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
                    187: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
                    188: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
                    189: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
                    190: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
                    191: """]]
                    192: 
                    193: ## Snapshots!
                    194: 
                    195: Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
                    196: 
                    197: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    198: $ ec2-authorize default -p 22 --region us-east-1
                    199: GROUP           default 
                    200: PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
                    201: """]]
                    202: 
                    203: We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz*, to our instance host:
                    204: 
                    205: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    206: # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
                    207: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
                    208:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
                    209: # Upload disk image
                    210: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
                    211:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
                    212: """]]
                    213: 
                    214: Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
                    215: 
                    216: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    217: $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
                    218: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
                    219: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
                    220: [...]
                    221: [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
                    222: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
                    223: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
                    224: [...]
                    225: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
                    226: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
                    227: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
                    228: default=0
                    229: timeout=0
                    230: hiddenmenu
                    231: 
                    232: title NetBSD AMI
                    233: root (hd0)
                    234: kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
                    235: EOF
                    236: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
                    237: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
                    238: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
                    239: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# sync
                    240: """]]
                    241: 
                    242: ## Shutdown the Linux instance
                    243: 
                    244: We now have to detach volumes, snapshot them, then we shutdown the Linux instance.
                    245: 
                    246: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    247: # ec2-detach-volume vol-36f88d5e
                    248: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
                    249: # ec2-detach-volume vol-24f88d4c
                    250: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
                    251: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-36f88d5e
                    252: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-deef2bb2</strong>   vol-36f88d5e    pending 2011-02-18T01:17:59+0000                983624114127    5
                    253: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-24f88d4c
                    254: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-8aef2be6</strong>   vol-24f88d4c    pending 2011-02-18T01:18:10+0000                983624114127    1
                    255: # ec2-terminate-instances i-5babe737
                    256: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running shutting-down
                    257: """]]
                    258: 
                    259: # Playing with your first NetBSD instance
                    260: 
                    261: ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
                    262: 
                    263: An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
                    264: 
                    265: /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So choose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch your NetBSD instance later!
                    266: 
                    267: The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
                    268: 
                    269: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    270: # Obtain all kernel images (AKI) for region US East, for which manifest location contains pv-grub (for PyGrub)
                    271: # ec2-describe-images -a --region=us-east-1 -F image-type=kernel -F manifest-location=*pv-grub*
                    272: IMAGE   aki-407d9529    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml        amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
                    273: <strong>IMAGE   aki-427d952b    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml      amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen</strong>
                    274: IMAGE   aki-4c7d9525    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml       amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
                    275: IMAGE   aki-4e7d9527    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml     amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
                    276: """]]
                    277: 
                    278: Pick the one with the correct architecture (x86_64 here). **hd0** are for AMIs where the snapshot contains no partition (where the volume is itself the whole partition), while **hd00** are for snapshots partitioned in a classical way (via MBR). Choose **hd0** AKIs. In this case, that will be **aki-427d952b**.
                    279: 
                    280: We can proceed to the creation of our AMI, with:
                    281: 
                    282: 1. */dev/sda1* as Grub partition (*/dev/sdg*, snapshot **snap-8aef2be6** of volume **vol-24f88d4c**)
                    283: 1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
                    284: 
                    285: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    286: $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-427d952b --region us-east-1 \
                    287:     -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
                    288:     -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;
                    289: IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
                    290: """]]
                    291: 
                    292: ## Launch your first instance
                    293: 
                    294: You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
                    295: 
                    296: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    297: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
                    298: RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
                    299: INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
                    300: *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
                    301: # Query console output for your new instance
                    302: $ ec2-get-console-output i-953d72f9
                    303: Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
                    304:     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
                    305:     The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    306: Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                    307:     The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
                    308: 
                    309: NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
                    310: [...]
                    311: NetBSD/amd64 (ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal) (console)
                    312: 
                    313: login: 
                    314: """]]
                    315: 
                    316: ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
                    317: 
                    318: Connection is similar to the one you used for the Amazon Linux instance, except that you login as "root" instead of "ec2-user":
                    319: 
                    320: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    321: $ ec2-describe-instances i-953d72f9
                    322: RESERVATION     r-da8021b7      983624114127    default
                    323: INSTANCE        i-953d72f9      ami-74d0231d    <strong>ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>  ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal   running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-19T04:01:03+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     50.16.3.55      10.112.58.223                   ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
                    324: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-ec3c4a84    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
                    325: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda2       vol-ee3c4a86    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
                    326: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" root@ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com
                    327: The authenticity of host 'ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com (50.16.3.55)' can't be established.
                    328: [...]
                    329: Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.
                    330: 
                    331: Terminal type is xterm.
                    332: We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
                    333: ip-10-112-58-223# uname -a
                    334: NetBSD ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal 5.99.45 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU amd64
                    335: ip-10-112-58-223# 
                    336: """]]
                    337: 
                    338: Done!
                    339: 
                    340: ## And now?
                    341: 
                    342: Well, you got a NetBSD instance that is in almost every part similar to what a NetBSD domU can be. You can use this domU to host Internet services, run a database, extend your build farm, or use it as a sandbox. The AMI being built around snapshots, you can play and break your instance in every way you want; just restart one anew if you need to. Don't forget that Amazon will charge acccordingly :)
                    343: 
                    344: Remember, you can query information regarding your AWS account through [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]] package. It is quite easy to use these tools for scripting; for a more elaborate, graphical interface, use the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).

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