File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / amazon_ec2.mdwn
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Sun Mar 13 02:18:41 2011 UTC (9 years, 8 months ago) by jym
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
Now that first steps is a standalone page, inline it.

    1: [[!toc]]
    2: 
    3: # Introduction
    4: 
    5: This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service. We will first give some brief explanations on how you can obtain an AWS account, and what you will need to run NetBSD under EC2. Then, at your convenience, you will be able to start with pre-made images, or roll-out your own.
    6: 
    7: # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
    8: 
    9: If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/), and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.
   10: 
   11: [[!inline pages="amazon_ec2/first_steps" raw="yes"]]
   12: 
   13: # Using pre-made AMIs
   14: 
   15: [[!inline pages="amazon_ec2/AMIs" raw="yes"]]
   16: 
   17: # Build-up your NetBSD system
   18: 
   19: ## Fetch and build NetBSD
   20: 
   21: EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
   22: 
   23: This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
   24: 
   25: /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to build the toolchain, which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
   26: 
   27: [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
   28: 
   29: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   30: cd /usr/
   31: # grab a recent src.tgz file (use curl(1), ftp(1), wget(1), ...)
   32: ftp -a 'http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src.tar.gz'
   33: # Decompress
   34: tar -xzpf src.tar.gz
   35: cd src
   36: # build distribution and kernel
   37: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -m amd64 -U distribution
   38: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 kernel=XEN3_DOMU
   39: # install distribution in /mnt/ec2
   40: su root ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -U -V INSTALLSETS="base etc" install=/mnt/ec2
   41: """]]
   42: 
   43: # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
   44: 
   45: /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
   46: 
   47: Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
   48: 
   49: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
   50: rc_configured=YES
   51: 
   52: ec2_init=YES
   53: sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
   54: """]]
   55: 
   56: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
   57: # Allows root to login via authentication keys
   58: PermitRootLogin without-password
   59: """]]
   60: 
   61: This file is needed if you want to login via the EC2 SSH key pair created previously:
   62: 
   63: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2_init text="""
   64: #!/bin/sh
   65: #
   66: # PROVIDE: ec2_init
   67: # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
   68: # BEFORE:  LOGIN
   69: 
   70: $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
   71: 
   72: name="ec2_init"
   73: rcvar=${name}
   74: start_cmd="ec2_init"
   75: stop_cmd=":"
   76: 
   77: METADATA_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/"
   78: SSH_KEY_URL="public-keys/0/openssh-key"
   79: HOSTNAME_URL="hostname"
   80: 
   81: SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
   82: 
   83: ec2_init()
   84: {
   85:         (
   86:         umask 022
   87:         # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
   88:         EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${SSH_KEY_URL}")
   89: 
   90:         if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
   91:                 # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
   92:                 # to root 'authorized_keys' file
   93:                 mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   94:                 touch "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
   95:                 cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   96: 
   97:                 grep -q "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
   98:                 if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
   99:                         echo "Setting EC2 SSH key pair: ${EC2_SSH_KEY##* }"
  100:                         echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
  101:                 fi
  102:         fi
  103: 
  104:         # set hostname
  105:         HOSTNAME=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${HOSTNAME_URL}")
  106:         echo "Setting EC2 hostname: ${HOSTNAME}"
  107:         echo "$HOSTNAME" > /etc/myname
  108:         hostname "$HOSTNAME"
  109:         )
  110: }
  111: 
  112: load_rc_config $name
  113: run_rc_command "$1"
  114: """]]
  115: 
  116: Create various files and directories:
  117: 
  118: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  119: cd /mnt/ec2
  120: # Add proc and kern directories
  121: mkdir grub kern proc
  122: # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
  123: echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
  124: # Basic fstab entries
  125: cat > etc/fstab << EOF
  126: /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
  127: /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2fs rw 2 2
  128: kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
  129: ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
  130: procfs     /proc    procfs rw
  131: EOF
  132: # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
  133: if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2_init ]; then
  134:     chmod 555 etc/rc.d/ec2_init
  135: fi
  136: """]]
  137: 
  138: You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
  139: 
  140: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  141: $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k /tmp/NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
  142: Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
  143: Extent size set to 8192
  144: NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
  145:         using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
  146: super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
  147:      32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
  148: Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
  149: Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
  150: $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
  151: """]]
  152: 
  153: # Upload NetBSD to EC2
  154: 
  155: We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. We will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
  156: 
  157: EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
  158: 
  159: The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
  160: 
  161: ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
  162: 
  163: Creating an instance is straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
  164: 
  165: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  166: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
  167: RESERVATION     r-1ab61377      983624114127    default
  168: INSTANCE        <strong>i-5babe737</strong>      ami-74f0061d                    pending &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled                                     ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
  169: """]]
  170: 
  171: Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
  172: 
  173: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  174: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
  175: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
  176: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
  177: """]]
  178: 
  179: ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
  180: 
  181: We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
  182: 
  183: 1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
  184: 1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
  185: 
  186: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  187: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
  188: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
  189: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
  190: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
  191: *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
  192: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
  193: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
  194: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
  195: # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
  196: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
  197: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attaching       2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
  198: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
  199: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attaching       2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
  200: *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
  201: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
  202: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
  203: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
  204: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
  205: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
  206: """]]
  207: 
  208: ## Snapshots!
  209: 
  210: Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
  211: 
  212: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  213: $ ec2-authorize default -p 22 --region us-east-1
  214: GROUP           default 
  215: PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
  216: """]]
  217: 
  218: We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz*, to our instance host:
  219: 
  220: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  221: # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
  222: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
  223:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
  224: # Upload disk image
  225: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
  226:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
  227: """]]
  228: 
  229: Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
  230: 
  231: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  232: $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
  233: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
  234: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
  235: [...]
  236: [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
  237: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
  238: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
  239: [...]
  240: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
  241: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
  242: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
  243: default=0
  244: timeout=0
  245: hiddenmenu
  246: 
  247: title NetBSD AMI
  248: root (hd0)
  249: kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
  250: EOF
  251: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
  252: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
  253: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
  254: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# sync
  255: """]]
  256: 
  257: ## Shutdown the Linux instance
  258: 
  259: We now have to detach volumes, snapshot them, then we shutdown the Linux instance.
  260: 
  261: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  262: # ec2-detach-volume vol-36f88d5e
  263: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
  264: # ec2-detach-volume vol-24f88d4c
  265: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
  266: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-36f88d5e
  267: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-deef2bb2</strong>   vol-36f88d5e    pending 2011-02-18T01:17:59+0000                983624114127    5
  268: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-24f88d4c
  269: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-8aef2be6</strong>   vol-24f88d4c    pending 2011-02-18T01:18:10+0000                983624114127    1
  270: # ec2-terminate-instances i-5babe737
  271: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running shutting-down
  272: """]]
  273: 
  274: # Playing with your first NetBSD instance
  275: 
  276: ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
  277: 
  278: An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
  279: 
  280: /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So choose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch your NetBSD instance later!
  281: 
  282: The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
  283: 
  284: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  285: # Obtain all kernel images (AKI) for region US East, for which manifest location contains pv-grub (for PyGrub)
  286: # ec2-describe-images -a --region=us-east-1 -F image-type=kernel -F manifest-location=*pv-grub*
  287: IMAGE   aki-407d9529    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml        amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
  288: <strong>IMAGE   aki-427d952b    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml      amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen</strong>
  289: IMAGE   aki-4c7d9525    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml       amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
  290: IMAGE   aki-4e7d9527    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml     amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
  291: """]]
  292: 
  293: Pick the one with the correct architecture (x86_64 here). **hd0** are for AMIs where the snapshot contains no partition (where the volume is itself the whole partition), while **hd00** are for snapshots partitioned in a classical way (via MBR). Choose **hd0** AKIs. In this case, that will be **aki-427d952b**.
  294: 
  295: We can proceed to the creation of our AMI, with:
  296: 
  297: 1. */dev/sda1* as Grub partition (*/dev/sdg*, snapshot **snap-8aef2be6** of volume **vol-24f88d4c**)
  298: 1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
  299: 
  300: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  301: $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-427d952b --region us-east-1 \
  302:     -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
  303:     -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;
  304: IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
  305: """]]
  306: 
  307: ## Launch your first instance
  308: 
  309: You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
  310: 
  311: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  312: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
  313: RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
  314: INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
  315: *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
  316: # Query console output for your new instance
  317: $ ec2-get-console-output i-953d72f9
  318: Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
  319:     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
  320:     The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  321: Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
  322:     The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
  323: 
  324: NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
  325: [...]
  326: NetBSD/amd64 (ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal) (console)
  327: 
  328: login: 
  329: """]]
  330: 
  331: ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
  332: 
  333: Connection is similar to the one you used for the Amazon Linux instance, except that you login as "root" instead of "ec2-user":
  334: 
  335: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  336: $ ec2-describe-instances i-953d72f9
  337: RESERVATION     r-da8021b7      983624114127    default
  338: INSTANCE        i-953d72f9      ami-74d0231d    <strong>ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>  ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal   running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-19T04:01:03+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     50.16.3.55      10.112.58.223                   ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
  339: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-ec3c4a84    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
  340: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda2       vol-ee3c4a86    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
  341: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" root@ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com
  342: The authenticity of host 'ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com (50.16.3.55)' can't be established.
  343: [...]
  344: Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.
  345: 
  346: Terminal type is xterm.
  347: We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
  348: ip-10-112-58-223# uname -a
  349: NetBSD ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal 5.99.45 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU amd64
  350: ip-10-112-58-223# 
  351: """]]
  352: 
  353: Done!
  354: 
  355: ## And now?
  356: 
  357: Well, you got a NetBSD instance that is in almost every part similar to what a NetBSD domU can be. You can use this domU to host Internet services, run a database, extend your build farm, or use it as a sandbox. The AMI being built around snapshots, you can play and break your instance in every way you want; just restart one anew if you need to. Don't forget that Amazon will charge acccordingly :)
  358: 
  359: Remember, you can query information regarding your AWS account through [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]] package. It is quite easy to use these tools for scripting; for a more elaborate, graphical interface, use the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).

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