3: # Introduction
5: This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service.
7: # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
9: If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/), and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.
11: ## Quick overview
13: Before you can start playing with Amazon EC2, you have to create an account on Amazon Web Services, of which EC2, the Elastic Compute Cloud, is part. This is fairly straightforward, and done in two steps:
15: 1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/) home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.
16: 1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/). You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.
18: ## What do you need to know?
20: EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.
22: These can be created through the [Security Credentials](https://aws-portal.amazon.com/gp/aws/developer/account/index.html?ie=UTF8&action=access-key) page (also accessible from the [Account](http://aws.amazon.com/account/) page):
24: 1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.
25: 1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.
26: 1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.
27: 1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home). Note down the SSH Key Pair Name you chose.
29: ### Keep your credentials!
31: The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.
33: For convenience, you could store them under a *.ec2* directory inside your *$HOME*:
35: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
36: $ ls .ec2/
37: cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the X.509 certificate
38: id_rsa.ec2 # private RSA SSH key
39: id_rsa.ec2.pub # public RSA SSH key
40: pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the private key associated to the certificate
43: then set the environment accordingly:
45: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
46: export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
47: export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
48: export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2
49: export EC2_SSH_KEYNAME=<your_ssh_key_pair_name>
50: export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX
51: export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID
52: export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
55: Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.
57: ## Installing EC2 API tools
59: NetBSD provides EC2 API tools, to ease EC2 account management a little bit. The package is found inside [pkgsrc](http://www.pkgsrc.org), under [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]].
61: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
62: cd /usr/pkgsrc/misc/ec2-api-tools
63: make ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=amazon-software-license install
66: Package depends on Java, so build will take some time to finish. While it builds, just continue reading.
68: ## EC2 vocabulary -- last notes
70: Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.
72: Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www.xen.org) as virtualization solution. So, in essence, all operating systems that support Xen para-virtualization can theoretically run inside EC2, as a domU. This is the case for NetBSD; however, please note that only amd64 is currently supported. Work is on-going to support 32 bits for EC2.
74: All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.
76: These instances are tied to a *region* (a geographical location; typically US East, US West, Europe West, etc.). Each region has *availability zones*, which can be compared to a sub-region, each one being physically distinct from another. Regions are identified by a name, like *us-east-1*, *eu-west-1*. Same goes for availability zones, usually with the region's name as prefix: *us-east-1a*, *us-east-1b*, and so forth. Note that resources are **not** shared between zones, so if you transfer data from one zone to another, you will be charged for it.
78: AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
80: # Build-up your NetBSD system
82: ## Fetch and build NetBSD
84: EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
86: This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
88: /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to [[fetch the source|fetching_src]] to build the toolchain that will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
90: XXX build and install /mnt/ec2
92: # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
94: /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
96: Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
98: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
101: hostname=NetBSD-EC2-$(uname -m)
102: sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
105: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
106: # Allows root to login via authentication keys
107: PermitRootLogin without-password
110: Create *etc/fstab* and *etc/ifconfig.xennet0*:
112: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
113: cd /mnt/ec2
114: echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0 # EC2 network configuration
115: cat > etc/fstab << EOF
116: /dev/xbd1a / ffs rw 1 1
117: /dev/xbd0a /grub ext2 rw 2 2
118: kernfs /kern kernfs rw
119: ptyfs /dev/pts ptyfs rw
120: procfs /proc procfs rw
124: You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
126: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
127: $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/
128: Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
129: Extent size set to 8192
130: NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
131: using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
132: super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
133: 32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
134: Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
135: Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
136: $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
139: # Upload NetBSD to EC2
141: We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. For that, we will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
143: EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Chose ones backed by EBS.
145: The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
147: ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
149: Creating an instance straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
151: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
152: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
153: RESERVATION r-1ab61377 983624114127 default
154: INSTANCE <strong>i-5babe737</strong> ami-74f0061d pending <your_ssh_key_pair_name> 0 t1.micro 2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000 us-east-1c aki-427d952b monitoring-disabled ebs paravirtual xen
157: Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
159: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
160: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
161: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
162: INSTANCE i-5babe737 ami-74f0061d <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong> ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal running <your_ssh_key_pair_name> 0 t1.micro 2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000 us-east-1c aki-427d952b monitoring-disabled 126.96.36.199 10.99.86.193 ebs
165: ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
167: We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
169: 1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
170: 1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
172: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
173: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
174: VOLUME vol-24f88d4c 1 us-east-1c creating 2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
175: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
176: VOLUME vol-36f88d5e 5 us-east-1c creating 2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
177: *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
178: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
179: VOLUME vol-36f88d5e 5 us-east-1c available 2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
180: VOLUME vol-24f88d4c 1 us-east-1c available 2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
181: # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
182: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
183: ATTACHMENT vol-36f88d5e i-5babe737 /dev/sdf attaching 2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
184: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
185: ATTACHMENT vol-24f88d4c i-5babe737 /dev/sdg attaching 2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
186: *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
187: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
188: VOLUME vol-36f88d5e 5 us-east-1c in-use 2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
189: ATTACHMENT vol-36f88d5e i-5babe737 /dev/sdf attached 2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
190: VOLUME vol-24f88d4c 1 us-east-1c in-use 2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
191: ATTACHMENT vol-24f88d4c i-5babe737 /dev/sdg attached 2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
194: ## Snapshots!
196: We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img*, to our instance host:
198: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
199: # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
200: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" OBJ/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
202: # Upload disk image
203: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
207: Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
209: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
210: $ ec2-authorize default -p 22
211: GROUP default
212: PERMISSION default ALLOWS tcp 22 22 FROM CIDR 0.0.0.0/0
215: Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
217: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
218: $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
219: INSTANCE i-5babe737 ami-74f0061d <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong> ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal running <your_ssh_key_pair_name> 0 t1.micro 2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000 us-east-1c aki-427d952b monitoring-disabled 188.8.131.52 10.99.86.193 ebs
220: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" firstname.lastname@example.org
222: [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
223: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
224: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
226: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
227: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
228: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
233: title NetBSD AMI
234: root (hd0)
235: kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
237: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
238: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
239: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
240: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# sync
243: ## Shutdown the Linux instance
245: We now have to detach volumes, snapshot them, then we shutdown the Linux instance.
247: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
248: # ec2-detach-volume vol-36f88d5e
249: ATTACHMENT vol-36f88d5e i-5babe737 /dev/sdf detaching 2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
250: # ec2-detach-volume vol-24f88d4c
251: ATTACHMENT vol-24f88d4c i-5babe737 /dev/sdg detaching 2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
252: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-36f88d5e
253: SNAPSHOT <strong>snap-deef2bb2</strong> vol-36f88d5e pending 2011-02-18T01:17:59+0000 983624114127 5
254: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-24f88d4c
255: SNAPSHOT <strong>snap-8aef2be6</strong> vol-24f88d4c pending 2011-02-18T01:18:10+0000 983624114127 1
256: # ec2-terminate-instances i-5babe737
257: INSTANCE i-5babe737 running shutting-down
260: # Playing with your first NetBSD instance
262: ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
264: An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
266: /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So chose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch a NetBSD instance later!
268: The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
270: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
271: # Obtain all kernel images (AKI) for region US East, for which manifest location contains pv-grub (for PyGrub)
272: # ec2-describe-images -a --region=us-east-1 -F image-type=kernel -F manifest-location=*pv-grub*
273: IMAGE aki-407d9529 ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml amazon available public i386 kernel instance-store paravirtual xen
274: <strong>IMAGE aki-427d952b ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml amazon available public x86_64 kernel instance-store paravirtual xen</strong>
275: IMAGE aki-4c7d9525 ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml amazon available public i386 kernel instance-store paravirtual xen
276: IMAGE aki-4e7d9527 ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml amazon available public x86_64 kernel instance-store paravirtual xen
279: Pick the one with the correct architecture (x86_64 here). **hd0** are for AMIs where the snapshot contains no partition (where the volume is itself the whole partition), while **hd00** are for snapshots partitioned in a classical way (via MBR). Choose **hd0** AKIs. In this case, that will be **aki-427d952b**.
281: We can proceed to the creation of our AMI, with:
283: 1. */dev/sda1* as Grub partition (*/dev/sdg*, snapshot **snap-8aef2be6** of volume **vol-24f88d4c**)
284: 1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
286: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
287: $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-4e7d9527 --region us-east-1 \
288: -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
289: -d "<add your own description here>
290: IMAGE <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
293: ## Launch your first instance
295: You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
297: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
298: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c
299: RESERVATION r-08218465 983624114127 default
300: INSTANCE <strong>i-953d72f9</strong> ami-74d0231d pending 0 t1.micro 2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000 us-east-1c aki-4e7d9527 monitoring-disabled
301: *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
302: # Query console output for your new instance
303: $ ec2-get-console-output i-953d72f9
304: Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
305: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
306: The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
307: Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
308: The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
310: NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
315: ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
317: ## And now?
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