Annotation of wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn, revision 1.8

1.1       wiki        1: [[!toc]]
                      3: # Introduction
1.3       wiki        5: This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2]( service.
1.1       wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
                      9: If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](, and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.
1.1       wiki       10: 
1.3       wiki       11: ## Quick overview
1.1       wiki       12: 
1.3       wiki       13: Before you can start playing with Amazon EC2, you have to create an account on Amazon Web Services, of which EC2, the Elastic Compute Cloud, is part. This is fairly straightforward, and done in two steps:
1.1       wiki       14: 
1.3       wiki       15: 1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services]( home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.
                     16: 1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page]( You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.
1.1       wiki       17: 
                     18: ## What do you need to know
1.3       wiki       20: EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.
                     22: These can be created through the [Security Credentials]( page (also accessible from the [Account]( page):
                     24: 1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.
                     25: 1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.
                     26: 1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.
                     27: 1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](
1.1       wiki       29: ### Keep your credentials!
1.3       wiki       31: The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.
1.4       wiki       33: For convenience, you could store them under a **.ec2** directory inside your **$HOME**:
1.3       wiki       34: 
                     35: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     36: $ ls .ec2/                                                                
                     37: cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the X.509 certificate
1.5       wiki       38: id_rsa.ec2             # private RSA SSH key
                     39:         # public RSA SSH key
1.3       wiki       40: pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem   # the private key associated to the certificate
                     41: """]]
                     43: then set the environment accordingly:
                     45: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     46: export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
                     47: export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
                     48: export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2
                     49: export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX
                     50: export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID
                     51: export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
                     52: """]]
                     54: Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.
                     56: ### EC2 vocabulary -- last notes
                     58: Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.
                     60: Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen]( as virtualization solution. So, in essence, all operating systems that support Xen para-virtualization can theoretically run inside EC2, as a domU. This is the case for NetBSD; however, please note that only amd64 is currently supported. Work is on-going to support 32 bits for EC2.
                     62: All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage]( (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.
1.1       wiki       63: 
1.3       wiki       64: AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](, it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
1.1       wiki       65: 
                     66: # Building up your first AMI (Amazon Image)
                     68: ## Pre-built AMIs
1.3       wiki       70: (For the future) Once NetBSD has decent support for Amazon EC2, we will publish the AMI identifiers so you can quickly boot up in a NetBSD environment without going through all the steps given below.
1.1       wiki       71: 
1.6       wiki       72: ## Fetch and build NetBSD
1.1       wiki       73: 
1.6       wiki       74: EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
1.1       wiki       75: 
1.6       wiki       76: This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under **/mnt/ec2**.
1.1       wiki       77: 
1.6       wiki       78: /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to [[fetch the source|fetching_src]] to build the toolchain that will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
1.1       wiki       79: 
1.6       wiki       80: XXX build and install /mnt/ec2
                     82: ## Configuration
                     84: /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under **/mnt/ec2**; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
                     86: Under **/mnt/ec2**, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
                     88: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
                     89: rc_configured=YES
                     91: hostname=NetBSD-EC2-$(uname -m)
                     92: sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
                     93: """]]
                     95: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
                     96: # Allows root to login via authentication keys
                     97: PermitRootLogin without-password
                     98: """]]
1.7       wiki      100: Create **etc/fstab** and **etc/ifconfig.xennet0**:
1.6       wiki      101: 
1.8     ! wiki      102: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
        !           103: cd /mnt/ec2
        !           104: echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0 # EC2 network configuration
        !           105: cat > etc/fstab << EOF
1.6       wiki      106: /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
                    107: /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2
                    108: kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
                    109: ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
                    110: procfs     /proc    procfs rw
1.8     ! wiki      111: EOF
1.6       wiki      112: """]]
                    114: Once done, you can modify the system living under **/mnt/ec2** to fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc).
1.1       wiki      115: 
1.2       wiki      116: ## Upload your OS
1.1       wiki      117: 
1.6       wiki      118: When the NetBSD is properly installed and configured, we have to upload it to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will upload our files to construct our snapshots.
1.2       wiki      120: ### Create an Amazon Linux AMI instance
1.1       wiki      121: 
1.2       wiki      122: ### Upload your files
1.1       wiki      123: 
1.2       wiki      124: ### Snapshots!
                    126: ### Shutdown the instance
1.1       wiki      127: 
1.6       wiki      128: ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
1.1       wiki      129: 
                    131: # Play with your first NetBSD instance
                    133: ## Create the instance
                    135: ## Connect to it
                    137: ## And now?

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