Annotation of wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn, revision 1.8
1.1 wiki 1: [[!toc]]
3: # Introduction
1.3 wiki 5: This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service.
1.1 wiki 6:
1.3 wiki 7: # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
9: If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/), and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.
1.1 wiki 10:
1.3 wiki 11: ## Quick overview
1.1 wiki 12:
1.3 wiki 13: Before you can start playing with Amazon EC2, you have to create an account on Amazon Web Services, of which EC2, the Elastic Compute Cloud, is part. This is fairly straightforward, and done in two steps:
1.1 wiki 14:
1.3 wiki 15: 1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/) home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.
16: 1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/). You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.
1.1 wiki 17:
18: ## What do you need to know
1.3 wiki 20: EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.
22: These can be created through the [Security Credentials](https://aws-portal.amazon.com/gp/aws/developer/account/index.html?ie=UTF8&action=access-key) page (also accessible from the [Account](http://aws.amazon.com/account/) page):
24: 1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.
25: 1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.
26: 1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.
27: 1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).
1.1 wiki 29: ### Keep your credentials!
1.3 wiki 31: The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.
1.4 wiki 33: For convenience, you could store them under a **.ec2** directory inside your **$HOME**:
1.3 wiki 34:
35: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
36: $ ls .ec2/
37: cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the X.509 certificate
1.5 wiki 38: id_rsa.ec2 # private RSA SSH key
39: id_rsa.ec2.pub # public RSA SSH key
1.3 wiki 40: pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the private key associated to the certificate
43: then set the environment accordingly:
45: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
46: export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
47: export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
48: export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2
49: export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX
50: export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID
51: export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
54: Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.
56: ### EC2 vocabulary -- last notes
58: Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.
60: Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www.xen.org) as virtualization solution. So, in essence, all operating systems that support Xen para-virtualization can theoretically run inside EC2, as a domU. This is the case for NetBSD; however, please note that only amd64 is currently supported. Work is on-going to support 32 bits for EC2.
62: All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.
1.1 wiki 63:
1.3 wiki 64: AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
1.1 wiki 65:
66: # Building up your first AMI (Amazon Image)
68: ## Pre-built AMIs
1.3 wiki 70: (For the future) Once NetBSD has decent support for Amazon EC2, we will publish the AMI identifiers so you can quickly boot up in a NetBSD environment without going through all the steps given below.
1.1 wiki 71:
1.6 wiki 72: ## Fetch and build NetBSD
1.1 wiki 73:
1.6 wiki 74: EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
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1.6 wiki 76: This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under **/mnt/ec2**.
1.1 wiki 77:
1.6 wiki 78: /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to [[fetch the source|fetching_src]] to build the toolchain that will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
1.1 wiki 79:
1.6 wiki 80: XXX build and install /mnt/ec2
82: ## Configuration
84: /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under **/mnt/ec2**; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
86: Under **/mnt/ec2**, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
88: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
91: hostname=NetBSD-EC2-$(uname -m)
92: sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
95: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
96: # Allows root to login via authentication keys
97: PermitRootLogin without-password
1.7 wiki 100: Create **etc/fstab** and **etc/ifconfig.xennet0**:
1.6 wiki 101:
1.8 ! wiki 102: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
! 103: cd /mnt/ec2
! 104: echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0 # EC2 network configuration
! 105: cat > etc/fstab << EOF
1.6 wiki 106: /dev/xbd1a / ffs rw 1 1
107: /dev/xbd0a /grub ext2 rw 2 2
108: kernfs /kern kernfs rw
109: ptyfs /dev/pts ptyfs rw
110: procfs /proc procfs rw
1.8 ! wiki 111: EOF
1.6 wiki 112: """]]
114: Once done, you can modify the system living under **/mnt/ec2** to fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc).
1.1 wiki 115:
1.2 wiki 116: ## Upload your OS
1.1 wiki 117:
1.6 wiki 118: When the NetBSD is properly installed and configured, we have to upload it to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will upload our files to construct our snapshots.
1.2 wiki 120: ### Create an Amazon Linux AMI instance
1.1 wiki 121:
1.2 wiki 122: ### Upload your files
1.1 wiki 123:
1.2 wiki 124: ### Snapshots!
126: ### Shutdown the instance
1.1 wiki 127:
1.6 wiki 128: ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
1.1 wiki 129:
131: # Play with your first NetBSD instance
133: ## Create the instance
135: ## Connect to it
137: ## And now?
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