Annotation of wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn, revision 1.36

1.1       wiki        1: [[!toc]]
                      2: 
                      3: # Introduction
                      4: 
1.21      wiki        5: This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service. We will first give some brief explanations on how you can obtain an AWS account, and what you will need to run NetBSD under EC2. Then, at your convenience, you will be able to start with pre-made images, or roll-out your own.
1.1       wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
                      8: 
                      9: If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/), and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.
1.1       wiki       10: 
1.3       wiki       11: ## Quick overview
1.1       wiki       12: 
1.3       wiki       13: Before you can start playing with Amazon EC2, you have to create an account on Amazon Web Services, of which EC2, the Elastic Compute Cloud, is part. This is fairly straightforward, and done in two steps:
1.1       wiki       14: 
1.3       wiki       15: 1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/) home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.
                     16: 1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/). You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.
1.1       wiki       17: 
1.16      wiki       18: ## What do you need to know?
1.1       wiki       19: 
1.3       wiki       20: EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.
                     21: 
                     22: These can be created through the [Security Credentials](https://aws-portal.amazon.com/gp/aws/developer/account/index.html?ie=UTF8&action=access-key) page (also accessible from the [Account](http://aws.amazon.com/account/) page):
                     23: 
                     24: 1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.
                     25: 1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.
                     26: 1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.
1.9       wiki       27: 1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home). Note down the SSH Key Pair Name you chose.
1.3       wiki       28: 
1.1       wiki       29: ### Keep your credentials!
                     30: 
1.3       wiki       31: The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.
                     32: 
1.9       wiki       33: For convenience, you could store them under a *.ec2* directory inside your *$HOME*:
1.3       wiki       34: 
                     35: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     36: $ ls .ec2/                                                                
                     37: cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the X.509 certificate
1.5       wiki       38: id_rsa.ec2             # private RSA SSH key
                     39: id_rsa.ec2.pub         # public RSA SSH key
1.3       wiki       40: pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem   # the private key associated to the certificate
                     41: """]]
                     42: 
                     43: then set the environment accordingly:
                     44: 
                     45: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     46: export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
                     47: export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
                     48: export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2
1.9       wiki       49: export EC2_SSH_KEYNAME=<your_ssh_key_pair_name>
1.3       wiki       50: export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX
                     51: export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID
                     52: export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
                     53: """]]
                     54: 
                     55: Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.
                     56: 
1.16      wiki       57: ## Installing EC2 API tools
1.9       wiki       58: 
                     59: NetBSD provides EC2 API tools, to ease EC2 account management a little bit. The package is found inside [pkgsrc](http://www.pkgsrc.org), under [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]].
                     60: 
                     61: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     62: cd /usr/pkgsrc/misc/ec2-api-tools
                     63: make ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=amazon-software-license install
                     64: """]]
                     65: 
                     66: Package depends on Java, so build will take some time to finish. While it builds, just continue reading.
                     67: 
1.16      wiki       68: ## EC2 vocabulary -- last notes
1.3       wiki       69: 
                     70: Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.
                     71: 
                     72: Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www.xen.org) as virtualization solution. So, in essence, all operating systems that support Xen para-virtualization can theoretically run inside EC2, as a domU. This is the case for NetBSD; however, please note that only amd64 is currently supported. Work is on-going to support 32 bits for EC2.
                     73: 
                     74: All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.
1.1       wiki       75: 
1.9       wiki       76: These instances are tied to a *region* (a geographical location; typically US East, US West, Europe West, etc.). Each region has *availability zones*, which can be compared to a sub-region, each one being physically distinct from another. Regions are identified by a name, like *us-east-1*, *eu-west-1*. Same goes for availability zones, usually with the region's name as prefix: *us-east-1a*, *us-east-1b*, and so forth. Note that resources are **not** shared between zones, so if you transfer data from one zone to another, you will be charged for it.
                     77: 
1.3       wiki       78: AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
1.1       wiki       79: 
1.23      wiki       80: # Using pre-made AMIs
                     81: 
1.34      wiki       82: The following AMIs are publicly available. You can use them to [start a NetBSD instance](#index11h2) quickly, without needing to build your image by hand.
                     83: 
                     84: <table>
                     85: <tr>
                     86:   <th>NetBSD version</th>
                     87:   <th>us-west-1</th>
                     88:   <th>us-east-1</th>
                     89:   <th>eu-west-1</th>
                     90:   <th>ap-southeast-1</th>
                     91: </tr>
                     92: <tr>
                     93:   <th>NetBSD 5.1.0_PATCH</th>
                     94:   <td>
                     95:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
                     96:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
                     97:   </td>
                     98:   <td>
                     99:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
1.36    ! wiki      100:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
1.34      wiki      101:   </td>
                    102:   <td>
                    103:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
                    104:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
                    105:   </td>
                    106:   <td>
                    107:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
                    108:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
                    109:   </td>
                    110: </tr>
                    111: <tr>
                    112:   <th>NetBSD-HEAD (5.99.45)</th>
                    113:   <td>
                    114:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
                    115:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
                    116:   </td>
                    117:   <td>
                    118:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
                    119:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
                    120:   </td>
                    121:   <td>
                    122:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
                    123:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
                    124:   </td>
                    125:   <td>
                    126:       32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
                    127:       64 bits: <strong></strong>
                    128:   </td>
                    129: </tr>
                    130: </table>
1.23      wiki      131: 
1.17      wiki      132: # Build-up your NetBSD system
1.1       wiki      133: 
1.6       wiki      134: ## Fetch and build NetBSD
1.1       wiki      135: 
1.6       wiki      136: EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
1.1       wiki      137: 
1.9       wiki      138: This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
1.1       wiki      139: 
1.21      wiki      140: /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to build the toolchain, which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
1.1       wiki      141: 
1.21      wiki      142: [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
                    143: 
                    144: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
1.23      wiki      145: cd /usr/
                    146: # grab a recent src.tgz file (use curl(1), ftp(1), wget(1), ...)
                    147: ftp -a 'http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src.tar.gz'
                    148: # Decompress
                    149: tar -xzpf src.tar.gz
                    150: cd src
                    151: # build distribution and kernel
1.28      wiki      152: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -m amd64 -U distribution
1.23      wiki      153: ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 kernel=XEN3_DOMU
                    154: # install distribution in /mnt/ec2
1.32      wiki      155: su root ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -U -V INSTALLSETS="base etc" install=/mnt/ec2
1.21      wiki      156: """]]
1.6       wiki      157: 
1.16      wiki      158: # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
1.6       wiki      159: 
1.9       wiki      160: /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
1.6       wiki      161: 
1.9       wiki      162: Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
1.6       wiki      163: 
                    164: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
                    165: rc_configured=YES
                    166: 
1.26      wiki      167: ec2_init=YES
1.6       wiki      168: sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
                    169: """]]
                    170: 
                    171: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
                    172: # Allows root to login via authentication keys
                    173: PermitRootLogin without-password
                    174: """]]
                    175: 
1.22      wiki      176: This file is needed if you want to login via the EC2 SSH key pair created previously:
1.21      wiki      177: 
1.26      wiki      178: [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2_init text="""
1.21      wiki      179: #!/bin/sh
                    180: #
1.26      wiki      181: # PROVIDE: ec2_init
1.21      wiki      182: # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
                    183: # BEFORE:  LOGIN
                    184: 
                    185: $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
                    186: 
                    187: name="ec2_init"
1.26      wiki      188: rcvar=${name}
1.21      wiki      189: start_cmd="ec2_init"
                    190: stop_cmd=":"
                    191: 
1.22      wiki      192: METADATA_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/"
                    193: SSH_KEY_URL="public-keys/0/openssh-key"
                    194: HOSTNAME_URL="hostname"
                    195: 
1.21      wiki      196: SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
                    197: 
                    198: ec2_init()
                    199: {
                    200:         (
                    201:         umask 022
                    202:         # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
1.22      wiki      203:         EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${SSH_KEY_URL}")
1.21      wiki      204: 
                    205:         if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
                    206:                 # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
                    207:                 # to root 'authorized_keys' file
                    208:                 mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
1.22      wiki      209:                 touch "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
1.21      wiki      210:                 cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                    211: 
1.22      wiki      212:                 grep -q "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                    213:                 if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                    214:                         echo "Setting EC2 SSH key pair: ${EC2_SSH_KEY##* }"
1.21      wiki      215:                         echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                    216:                 fi
                    217:         fi
1.22      wiki      218: 
                    219:         # set hostname
                    220:         HOSTNAME=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${HOSTNAME_URL}")
                    221:         echo "Setting EC2 hostname: ${HOSTNAME}"
                    222:         echo "$HOSTNAME" > /etc/myname
                    223:         hostname "$HOSTNAME"
1.21      wiki      224:         )
                    225: }
                    226: 
1.22      wiki      227: load_rc_config $name
                    228: run_rc_command "$1"
1.21      wiki      229: """]]
                    230: 
                    231: Create various files and directories:
1.6       wiki      232: 
1.8       wiki      233: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    234: cd /mnt/ec2
1.21      wiki      235: # Add proc and kern directories
1.22      wiki      236: mkdir grub kern proc
1.21      wiki      237: # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
                    238: echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
                    239: # Basic fstab entries
1.8       wiki      240: cat > etc/fstab << EOF
1.6       wiki      241: /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
1.22      wiki      242: /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2fs rw 2 2
1.6       wiki      243: kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
                    244: ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
                    245: procfs     /proc    procfs rw
1.8       wiki      246: EOF
1.21      wiki      247: # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
1.26      wiki      248: if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2_init ]; then
1.33      wiki      249:     chmod 555 etc/rc.d/ec2_init
1.21      wiki      250: fi
1.6       wiki      251: """]]
                    252: 
1.24      wiki      253: You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
1.9       wiki      254: 
                    255: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    256: $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
                    257: Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
                    258: Extent size set to 8192
                    259: NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
                    260:         using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
                    261: super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
                    262:      32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
                    263: Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
                    264: Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
                    265: $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
                    266: """]]
1.1       wiki      267: 
1.17      wiki      268: # Upload NetBSD to EC2
1.1       wiki      269: 
1.24      wiki      270: We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. We will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
1.9       wiki      271: 
1.18      wiki      272: EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
1.9       wiki      273: 
                    274: The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
                    275: 
1.17      wiki      276: ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
1.9       wiki      277: 
1.24      wiki      278: Creating an instance is straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
1.9       wiki      279: 
                    280: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    281: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
                    282: RESERVATION     r-1ab61377      983624114127    default
                    283: INSTANCE        <strong>i-5babe737</strong>      ami-74f0061d                    pending &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled                                     ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
                    284: """]]
                    285: 
                    286: Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
1.6       wiki      287: 
1.9       wiki      288: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    289: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
                    290: $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
                    291: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
                    292: """]]
1.1       wiki      293: 
1.17      wiki      294: ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
1.1       wiki      295: 
1.9       wiki      296: We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
                    297: 
                    298: 1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
                    299: 1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
                    300: 
                    301: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    302: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
                    303: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
                    304: <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
                    305: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
                    306: *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
                    307: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
                    308: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
                    309: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
                    310: # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
                    311: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
                    312: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attaching       2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
                    313: <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
                    314: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attaching       2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
                    315: *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
                    316: <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
                    317: VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
                    318: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
                    319: VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
                    320: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
                    321: """]]
                    322: 
1.16      wiki      323: ## Snapshots!
1.2       wiki      324: 
1.19      wiki      325: Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
                    326: 
                    327: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      328: $ ec2-authorize default -p 22 --region us-east-1
1.19      wiki      329: GROUP           default 
                    330: PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
                    331: """]]
                    332: 
1.24      wiki      333: We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz*, to our instance host:
1.9       wiki      334: 
                    335: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    336: # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
1.21      wiki      337: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
1.9       wiki      338:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
                    339: # Upload disk image
                    340: rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
                    341:         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
                    342: """]]
                    343: 
1.17      wiki      344: Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
                    345: 
                    346: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    347: $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
                    348: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
1.9       wiki      349: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
                    350: [...]
                    351: [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
                    352: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
                    353: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
                    354: [...]
                    355: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
                    356: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
                    357: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
1.12      wiki      358: default=0
                    359: timeout=0
                    360: hiddenmenu
                    361: 
                    362: title NetBSD AMI
                    363: root (hd0)
                    364: kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
1.9       wiki      365: EOF
                    366: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
                    367: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
                    368: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
1.10      wiki      369: [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# sync
1.9       wiki      370: """]]
                    371: 
1.16      wiki      372: ## Shutdown the Linux instance
1.1       wiki      373: 
1.10      wiki      374: We now have to detach volumes, snapshot them, then we shutdown the Linux instance.
                    375: 
                    376: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    377: # ec2-detach-volume vol-36f88d5e
                    378: ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
                    379: # ec2-detach-volume vol-24f88d4c
                    380: ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
                    381: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-36f88d5e
                    382: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-deef2bb2</strong>   vol-36f88d5e    pending 2011-02-18T01:17:59+0000                983624114127    5
                    383: # ec2-create-snapshot vol-24f88d4c
                    384: SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-8aef2be6</strong>   vol-24f88d4c    pending 2011-02-18T01:18:10+0000                983624114127    1
                    385: # ec2-terminate-instances i-5babe737
                    386: INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running shutting-down
                    387: """]]
                    388: 
1.16      wiki      389: # Playing with your first NetBSD instance
                    390: 
1.6       wiki      391: ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
1.1       wiki      392: 
1.10      wiki      393: An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
                    394: 
1.18      wiki      395: /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So choose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch your NetBSD instance later!
1.10      wiki      396: 
                    397: The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
                    398: 
                    399: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    400: # Obtain all kernel images (AKI) for region US East, for which manifest location contains pv-grub (for PyGrub)
                    401: # ec2-describe-images -a --region=us-east-1 -F image-type=kernel -F manifest-location=*pv-grub*
                    402: IMAGE   aki-407d9529    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml        amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
1.15      wiki      403: <strong>IMAGE   aki-427d952b    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml      amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen</strong>
1.10      wiki      404: IMAGE   aki-4c7d9525    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml       amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
1.15      wiki      405: IMAGE   aki-4e7d9527    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml     amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
1.10      wiki      406: """]]
                    407: 
1.15      wiki      408: Pick the one with the correct architecture (x86_64 here). **hd0** are for AMIs where the snapshot contains no partition (where the volume is itself the whole partition), while **hd00** are for snapshots partitioned in a classical way (via MBR). Choose **hd0** AKIs. In this case, that will be **aki-427d952b**.
1.13      wiki      409: 
                    410: We can proceed to the creation of our AMI, with:
1.10      wiki      411: 
1.14      wiki      412: 1. */dev/sda1* as Grub partition (*/dev/sdg*, snapshot **snap-8aef2be6** of volume **vol-24f88d4c**)
                    413: 1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
1.10      wiki      414: 
                    415: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
1.20      wiki      416: $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-427d952b --region us-east-1 \
1.10      wiki      417:     -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
                    418:     -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;
1.11      wiki      419: IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
1.10      wiki      420: """]]
                    421: 
1.16      wiki      422: ## Launch your first instance
1.1       wiki      423: 
1.10      wiki      424: You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
                    425: 
                    426: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
1.27      wiki      427: $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
1.10      wiki      428: RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
                    429: INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
1.11      wiki      430: *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
                    431: # Query console output for your new instance
1.10      wiki      432: $ ec2-get-console-output i-953d72f9
1.15      wiki      433: Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
                    434:     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
                    435:     The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    436: Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                    437:     The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
                    438: 
                    439: NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
1.10      wiki      440: [...]
1.23      wiki      441: NetBSD/amd64 (ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal) (console)
                    442: 
                    443: login: 
1.10      wiki      444: """]]
                    445: 
1.15      wiki      446: ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
1.1       wiki      447: 
1.23      wiki      448: Connection is similar to the one you used for the Amazon Linux instance, except that you login as "root" instead of "ec2-user":
                    449: 
                    450: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    451: $ ec2-describe-instances i-953d72f9
                    452: RESERVATION     r-da8021b7      983624114127    default
                    453: INSTANCE        i-953d72f9      ami-74d0231d    <strong>ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>  ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal   running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-19T04:01:03+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     50.16.3.55      10.112.58.223                   ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
                    454: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-ec3c4a84    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
                    455: BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda2       vol-ee3c4a86    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
                    456: $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" root@ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com
                    457: The authenticity of host 'ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com (50.16.3.55)' can't be established.
                    458: [...]
                    459: Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.
                    460: 
                    461: Terminal type is xterm.
                    462: We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
                    463: ip-10-112-58-223# uname -a
                    464: NetBSD ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal 5.99.45 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU amd64
                    465: ip-10-112-58-223# 
                    466: """]]
                    467: 
                    468: Done!
                    469: 
1.1       wiki      470: ## And now?
1.23      wiki      471: 
                    472: Well, you got a NetBSD instance that is in almost every part similar to what a NetBSD domU can be. You can use this domU to host Internet services, run a database, extend your build farm, or use it as a sandbox. The AMI being built around snapshots, you can play and break your instance in every way you want; just restart one anew if you need to. Don't forget that Amazon will charge acccordingly :)
                    473: 
                    474: Remember, you can query information regarding your AWS account through [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]] package. It is quite easy to use these tools for scripting; for a more elaborate, graphical interface, use the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).

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