Diff for /wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn between versions 1.5 and 1.9

version 1.5, 2011/02/15 03:26:36 version 1.9, 2011/02/18 01:04:32
Line 24  These can be created through the [Securi Line 24  These can be created through the [Securi
 1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.  1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.
 1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.  1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.
 1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.  1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.
 1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).  1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home). Note down the SSH Key Pair Name you chose.
   
 ### Keep your credentials!  ### Keep your credentials!
   
 The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.  The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.
   
 For convenience, you could store them under a **.ec2** directory inside your **$HOME**:  For convenience, you could store them under a *.ec2* directory inside your *$HOME*:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ls .ec2/                                                                  $ ls .ec2/                                                                
Line 46  then set the environment accordingly: Line 46  then set the environment accordingly:
 export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem  export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
 export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem  export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
 export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2  export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2
   export EC2_SSH_KEYNAME=<your_ssh_key_pair_name>
 export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX  export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX
 export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID  export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID
 export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY  export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
Line 53  export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY Line 54  export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
   
 Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.  Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.
   
   ### Installing EC2 API tools
   
   NetBSD provides EC2 API tools, to ease EC2 account management a little bit. The package is found inside [pkgsrc](http://www.pkgsrc.org), under [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]].
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /usr/pkgsrc/misc/ec2-api-tools
   make ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=amazon-software-license install
   """]]
   
   Package depends on Java, so build will take some time to finish. While it builds, just continue reading.
   
 ### EC2 vocabulary -- last notes  ### EC2 vocabulary -- last notes
   
 Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.  Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.
Line 61  Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www. Line 73  Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www.
   
 All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.  All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.
   
   These instances are tied to a *region* (a geographical location; typically US East, US West, Europe West, etc.). Each region has *availability zones*, which can be compared to a sub-region, each one being physically distinct from another. Regions are identified by a name, like *us-east-1*, *eu-west-1*. Same goes for availability zones, usually with the region's name as prefix: *us-east-1a*, *us-east-1b*, and so forth. Note that resources are **not** shared between zones, so if you transfer data from one zone to another, you will be charged for it.
   
 AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.  AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
   
 # Building up your first AMI (Amazon Image)  # Building your first AMI (Amazon Image)
   
 ## Pre-built AMIs  ## Pre-built AMIs
   
 (For the future) Once NetBSD has decent support for Amazon EC2, we will publish the AMI identifiers so you can quickly boot up in a NetBSD environment without going through all the steps given below.  (For the future) Once NetBSD has decent support for Amazon EC2, we will publish the AMI identifiers so you can quickly boot up in a NetBSD environment without going through all the steps given below.
   
 ## Fetch and build the operating system  ## Fetch and build NetBSD
   
   EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
   
   This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
   
   /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to [[fetch the source|fetching_src]] to build the toolchain that will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
   
   XXX build and install /mnt/ec2
   
   ## Configuration
   
 ## Customizations  /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
   
 ### For EC2  Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
   
 ### For your own needs  [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
   rc_configured=YES
   
   hostname=NetBSD-EC2-$(uname -m)
   sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
   """]]
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
   # Allows root to login via authentication keys
   PermitRootLogin without-password
   """]]
   
   Create *etc/fstab* and *etc/ifconfig.xennet0*:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /mnt/ec2
   echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0 # EC2 network configuration
   cat > etc/fstab << EOF
   /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
   /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2
   kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
   ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
   procfs     /proc    procfs rw
   EOF
   """]]
   
   You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
   Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
   Extent size set to 8192
   NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
           using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
   super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
        32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
   Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
   Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
   $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
   """]]
   
 ## Upload your OS  ## Upload your OS
   
 ### Create an Amazon Linux AMI instance  We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. For that, we will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
   
   EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Chose ones backed by EBS.
   
   The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
   
   ### Creating the instance
   
   Creating an instance straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
   RESERVATION     r-1ab61377      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        <strong>i-5babe737</strong>      ami-74f0061d                    pending &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled                                     ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
   """]]
   
   Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
   $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
   """]]
   
 ### Upload your files  ### Upload your files
   
   We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
   
   1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
   1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
   
   #### Creating and attaching volumes
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
   <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
   <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attaching       2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
   <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attaching       2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
   *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
   <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
   """]]
   
 ### Snapshots!  ### Snapshots!
   
 ### Shutdown the instance  We have to upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img*, to our instance host:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
   rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" OBJ/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
           ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
   # Upload disk image
   rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
           ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
   """]]
   
   Connect to the instance, through its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
   $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
   [...]
   [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
   [...]
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
           default=0
           timeout=0
           hiddenmenu
   
           title NetBSD AMI
               root (hd0)
               kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
   EOF
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
   """]]
   
 ## Create your customized AMI  ### Shutdown the Linux instance
   
   ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
   
 # Play with your first NetBSD instance  # Play with your first NetBSD instance
   

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