Diff for /wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn between versions 1.7 and 1.21

version 1.7, 2011/02/17 21:01:50 version 1.21, 2011/02/19 02:42:58
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 # Introduction  # Introduction
   
 This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service.  This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service. We will first give some brief explanations on how you can obtain an AWS account, and what you will need to run NetBSD under EC2. Then, at your convenience, you will be able to start with pre-made images, or roll-out your own.
   
 # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)  # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
   
Line 15  Before you can start playing with Amazon Line 15  Before you can start playing with Amazon
 1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/) home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.  1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/) home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.
 1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/). You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.  1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/). You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.
   
 ## What do you need to know  ## What do you need to know?
   
 EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.  EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.
   
Line 24  These can be created through the [Securi Line 24  These can be created through the [Securi
 1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.  1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.
 1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.  1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.
 1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.  1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.
 1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).  1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home). Note down the SSH Key Pair Name you chose.
   
 ### Keep your credentials!  ### Keep your credentials!
   
 The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.  The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.
   
 For convenience, you could store them under a **.ec2** directory inside your **$HOME**:  For convenience, you could store them under a *.ec2* directory inside your *$HOME*:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ls .ec2/                                                                  $ ls .ec2/                                                                
Line 46  then set the environment accordingly: Line 46  then set the environment accordingly:
 export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem  export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
 export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem  export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
 export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2  export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2
   export EC2_SSH_KEYNAME=<your_ssh_key_pair_name>
 export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX  export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX
 export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID  export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID
 export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY  export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
Line 53  export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY Line 54  export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
   
 Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.  Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.
   
 ### EC2 vocabulary -- last notes  ## Installing EC2 API tools
   
   NetBSD provides EC2 API tools, to ease EC2 account management a little bit. The package is found inside [pkgsrc](http://www.pkgsrc.org), under [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]].
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /usr/pkgsrc/misc/ec2-api-tools
   make ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=amazon-software-license install
   """]]
   
   Package depends on Java, so build will take some time to finish. While it builds, just continue reading.
   
   ## EC2 vocabulary -- last notes
   
 Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.  Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.
   
Line 61  Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www. Line 73  Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www.
   
 All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.  All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.
   
 AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.  These instances are tied to a *region* (a geographical location; typically US East, US West, Europe West, etc.). Each region has *availability zones*, which can be compared to a sub-region, each one being physically distinct from another. Regions are identified by a name, like *us-east-1*, *eu-west-1*. Same goes for availability zones, usually with the region's name as prefix: *us-east-1a*, *us-east-1b*, and so forth. Note that resources are **not** shared between zones, so if you transfer data from one zone to another, you will be charged for it.
   
 # Building up your first AMI (Amazon Image)  
   
 ## Pre-built AMIs  AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
   
 (For the future) Once NetBSD has decent support for Amazon EC2, we will publish the AMI identifiers so you can quickly boot up in a NetBSD environment without going through all the steps given below.  # Build-up your NetBSD system
   
 ## Fetch and build NetBSD  ## Fetch and build NetBSD
   
 EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.  EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
   
 This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under **/mnt/ec2**.  This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
   
   /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to build the toolchain, which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
   
 /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to [[fetch the source|fetching_src]] to build the toolchain that will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.  [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
   
 XXX build and install /mnt/ec2  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # fetch src.tgz
   # decompress
   # build toolchain, kernel and distribution
   # install in /mnt/ec2
   """]]
   
 ## Configuration  # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
   
 /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under **/mnt/ec2**; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.  /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
   
 Under **/mnt/ec2**, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:  Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
 rc_configured=YES  rc_configured=YES
Line 97  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in Line 114  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in
 PermitRootLogin without-password  PermitRootLogin without-password
 """]]  """]]
   
 Create **etc/fstab** and **etc/ifconfig.xennet0**:  This file is needed if you want to login via the SSH key pair created previously:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2-init text="""
   #!/bin/sh
   #
   # PROVIDE: amazon-ec2
   # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
   # BEFORE:  LOGIN
   
   $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
   
   name="ec2_init"
   start_cmd="ec2_init"
   stop_cmd=":"
   
   SSH_KEY_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-keys/0/openssh-key"
   SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
   
   ec2_init()
   {
           (
           umask 022
           # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
           EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "$SSH_KEY_URL")
   
           if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
                   # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
                   # to root 'authorized_keys' file
                   mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                   cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   
                   grep "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
                           echo "Setting associated SSH key pair."
                           echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   fi
           fi
           )
   }
   
   """]]
   
   Create various files and directories:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/fstab text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /mnt/ec2
   # Add proc and kern directories
   mkdir proc kern
   # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
   echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
   # Basic fstab entries
   cat > etc/fstab << EOF
 /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1  /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
 /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2  /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2
 kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw  kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
 ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw  ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
 procfs     /proc    procfs rw  procfs     /proc    procfs rw
   EOF
   # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
   if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2-init ]; then
       chmod 755 etc/rc.d/ec2-init
   fi
   """]]
   
   You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
   Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
   Extent size set to 8192
   NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
           using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
   super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
        32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
   Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
   Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
   $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
   """]]
   
   # Upload NetBSD to EC2
   
   We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. For that, we will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
   
   EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
   
   The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
   
   ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
   
   Creating an instance straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
   RESERVATION     r-1ab61377      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        <strong>i-5babe737</strong>      ami-74f0061d                    pending &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled                                     ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
   """]]
   
   Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
   $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
   """]]
   
   ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
   
   We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
   
   1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
   1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
   <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
   <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attaching       2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
   <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attaching       2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
   *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
   <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
 """]]  """]]
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ifconfig.xennet0 text="""  ## Snapshots!
 # Configure interface for EC2 network  
 dhcp  Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-authorize default -p 22
   GROUP           default 
   PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
 """]]  """]]
   
 Once done, you can modify the system living under **/mnt/ec2** to fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc).  We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img*, to our instance host:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
   rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
           ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
   # Upload disk image
   rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
           ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
   """]]
   
 ## Upload your OS  Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
   
 When the NetBSD is properly installed and configured, we have to upload it to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will upload our files to construct our snapshots.  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
   $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
   [...]
   [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
   [...]
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
   default=0
   timeout=0
   hiddenmenu
   
   title NetBSD AMI
   root (hd0)
   kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
   EOF
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# sync
   """]]
   
 ### Create an Amazon Linux AMI instance  ## Shutdown the Linux instance
   
 ### Upload your files  We now have to detach volumes, snapshot them, then we shutdown the Linux instance.
   
 ### Snapshots!  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # ec2-detach-volume vol-36f88d5e
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
   # ec2-detach-volume vol-24f88d4c
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
   # ec2-create-snapshot vol-36f88d5e
   SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-deef2bb2</strong>   vol-36f88d5e    pending 2011-02-18T01:17:59+0000                983624114127    5
   # ec2-create-snapshot vol-24f88d4c
   SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-8aef2be6</strong>   vol-24f88d4c    pending 2011-02-18T01:18:10+0000                983624114127    1
   # ec2-terminate-instances i-5babe737
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running shutting-down
   """]]
   
 ### Shutdown the instance  # Playing with your first NetBSD instance
   
 ## Create your first NetBSD AMI  ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
   
   An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
   
   /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So choose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch your NetBSD instance later!
   
   The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # Obtain all kernel images (AKI) for region US East, for which manifest location contains pv-grub (for PyGrub)
   # ec2-describe-images -a --region=us-east-1 -F image-type=kernel -F manifest-location=*pv-grub*
   IMAGE   aki-407d9529    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml        amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
   <strong>IMAGE   aki-427d952b    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml      amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen</strong>
   IMAGE   aki-4c7d9525    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml       amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
   IMAGE   aki-4e7d9527    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml     amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
   """]]
   
   Pick the one with the correct architecture (x86_64 here). **hd0** are for AMIs where the snapshot contains no partition (where the volume is itself the whole partition), while **hd00** are for snapshots partitioned in a classical way (via MBR). Choose **hd0** AKIs. In this case, that will be **aki-427d952b**.
   
 # Play with your first NetBSD instance  We can proceed to the creation of our AMI, with:
   
 ## Create the instance  1. */dev/sda1* as Grub partition (*/dev/sdg*, snapshot **snap-8aef2be6** of volume **vol-24f88d4c**)
   1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-427d952b --region us-east-1 \
       -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
       -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;
   IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
   """]]
   
   ## Launch your first instance
   
   You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c     
   RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
   *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
   # Query console output for your new instance
   $ ec2-get-console-output i-953d72f9
   Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
       2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
       The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
   Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
       The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
   
   NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
           jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU
   [...]
   """]]
   
 ## Connect to it  ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
   
 ## And now?  ## And now?

Removed from v.1.7  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.21


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