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 # Introduction  # Introduction
   
 First draft of a tutorial on getting NetBSD running in Amazon's cloud system, know as [EC2](aws.amazon.com/ec2/).  This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service. We will first give some brief explanations on how you can obtain an AWS account, and what you will need to run NetBSD under EC2. Then, at your convenience, you will be able to start with pre-made images, or roll-out your own.
   
 TOC first :) Content will come along.  
   
   
 # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)  # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
   
 ## Quick overview  If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/), and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.
   
 ## What do you need to know  
   
 ### Keep your credentials!  
   
 ### EC2 vocabulary  
   
   
 # Building up your first AMI (Amazon Image)  ## Quick overview
   
 ## Pre-built AMIs  
   
 (For the future)  
   
 ## Fetch and build the operating system  
   
 ## Customizations  
   
 ### For EC2  Before you can start playing with Amazon EC2, you have to create an account on Amazon Web Services, of which EC2, the Elastic Compute Cloud, is part. This is fairly straightforward, and done in two steps:
   
 ### For your own needs  1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/) home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.
   1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/). You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.
   
   ## What do you need to know?
   
 ## Upload your OS  EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.
   
 ### Create an Amazon Linux AMI instance  These can be created through the [Security Credentials](https://aws-portal.amazon.com/gp/aws/developer/account/index.html?ie=UTF8&action=access-key) page (also accessible from the [Account](http://aws.amazon.com/account/) page):
   
 ### Upload your files  1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.
   1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.
   1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.
   1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home). Note down the SSH Key Pair Name you chose.
   
 ### Snapshots!  ### Keep your credentials!
   
 ### Shutdown the instance  The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.
   
 ## Create your customized AMI  For convenience, you could store them under a *.ec2* directory inside your *$HOME*:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ls .ec2/                                                                
   cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the X.509 certificate
   id_rsa.ec2             # private RSA SSH key
   id_rsa.ec2.pub         # public RSA SSH key
   pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem   # the private key associated to the certificate
   """]]
   
   then set the environment accordingly:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
   export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem
   export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2
   export EC2_SSH_KEYNAME=<your_ssh_key_pair_name>
   export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX
   export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID
   export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY
   """]]
   
   Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.
   
   ## Installing EC2 API tools
   
   NetBSD provides EC2 API tools, to ease EC2 account management a little bit. The package is found inside [pkgsrc](http://www.pkgsrc.org), under [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]].
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /usr/pkgsrc/misc/ec2-api-tools
   make ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=amazon-software-license install
   """]]
   
   Package depends on Java, so build will take some time to finish. While it builds, just continue reading.
   
   ## EC2 vocabulary -- last notes
   
   Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.
   
   Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www.xen.org) as virtualization solution. So, in essence, all operating systems that support Xen para-virtualization can theoretically run inside EC2, as a domU. This is the case for NetBSD; however, please note that only amd64 is currently supported. Work is on-going to support 32 bits for EC2.
   
   All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.
   
   These instances are tied to a *region* (a geographical location; typically US East, US West, Europe West, etc.). Each region has *availability zones*, which can be compared to a sub-region, each one being physically distinct from another. Regions are identified by a name, like *us-east-1*, *eu-west-1*. Same goes for availability zones, usually with the region's name as prefix: *us-east-1a*, *us-east-1b*, and so forth. Note that resources are **not** shared between zones, so if you transfer data from one zone to another, you will be charged for it.
   
   AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
   
   # Using pre-made AMIs
   
   The following AMIs are publicly available. You can use them to [start a NetBSD instance](#index11h2) quickly, without needing to build your image by hand.
   
   <table>
   <tr>
     <th>NetBSD version</th>
     <th>us-west-1</th>
     <th>us-east-1</th>
     <th>eu-west-1</th>
     <th>ap-southeast-1</th>
   </tr>
   <tr>
     <th>NetBSD 5.1.0_PATCH</th>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong></strong>
     </td>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong>ami-f612e19f</strong>
     </td>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong></strong>
     </td>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong></strong>
     </td>
   </tr>
   <tr>
     <th>NetBSD-HEAD (5.99.45)</th>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong></strong>
     </td>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong></strong>
     </td>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong></strong>
     </td>
     <td>
         32 bits: <strong></strong><br/>
         64 bits: <strong></strong>
     </td>
   </tr>
   </table>
   
   # Build-up your NetBSD system
   
   ## Fetch and build NetBSD
   
   EC2 does not provide direct access to console. As a consequence, we cannot rely on it for installation, especially via [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]]. We must therefore build and install NetBSD in a separate directory, and configure it manually, before upload.
   
   This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
   
   /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to build the toolchain, which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
   
   [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /usr/
   # grab a recent src.tgz file (use curl(1), ftp(1), wget(1), ...)
   ftp -a 'http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src.tar.gz'
   # Decompress
   tar -xzpf src.tar.gz
   cd src
   # build distribution and kernel
   ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -m amd64 -U distribution
   ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 kernel=XEN3_DOMU
   # install distribution in /mnt/ec2
   su root ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -U -V INSTALLSETS="base etc" install=/mnt/ec2
   """]]
   
   # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
   
   /!\This part assumes that you have a non-configured NetBSD system extracted under */mnt/ec2*; that is, it should have not been modified through [[!template id=man name=sysinst section=8]], nor by you.
   
   Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add (or modify) these lines:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
   rc_configured=YES
   
   ec2_init=YES
   sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
   """]]
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/ssh/sshd_config text="""
   # Allows root to login via authentication keys
   PermitRootLogin without-password
   """]]
   
   This file is needed if you want to login via the EC2 SSH key pair created previously:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2_init text="""
   #!/bin/sh
   #
   # PROVIDE: ec2_init
   # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
   # BEFORE:  LOGIN
   
   $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
   
   name="ec2_init"
   rcvar=${name}
   start_cmd="ec2_init"
   stop_cmd=":"
   
   METADATA_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/"
   SSH_KEY_URL="public-keys/0/openssh-key"
   HOSTNAME_URL="hostname"
   
   SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
   
   ec2_init()
   {
           (
           umask 022
           # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
           EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${SSH_KEY_URL}")
   
           if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
                   # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
                   # to root 'authorized_keys' file
                   mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                   touch "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   
                   grep -q "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                           echo "Setting EC2 SSH key pair: ${EC2_SSH_KEY##* }"
                           echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   fi
           fi
   
           # set hostname
           HOSTNAME=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${HOSTNAME_URL}")
           echo "Setting EC2 hostname: ${HOSTNAME}"
           echo "$HOSTNAME" > /etc/myname
           hostname "$HOSTNAME"
           )
   }
   
   
   load_rc_config $name
   run_rc_command "$1"
   """]]
   
   Create various files and directories:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /mnt/ec2
   # Add proc and kern directories
   mkdir grub kern proc
   # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
   echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
   # Basic fstab entries
   cat > etc/fstab << EOF
   /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
   /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2fs rw 2 2
   kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
   ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
   procfs     /proc    procfs rw
   EOF
   # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
   if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2_init ]; then
       chmod 555 etc/rc.d/ec2_init
   fi
   """]]
   
   You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
   Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
   Extent size set to 8192
   NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
           using 5 cylinder groups of 53.88MB, 6896 blks, 1728 inodes.
   super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
        32, 110368, 220704, 331040, 441376,
   Populating `NetBSD-AMI.img'
   Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
   $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
   """]]
   
   # Upload NetBSD to EC2
   
   We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. We will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
   
   EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
   
   The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
   
   ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
   
   Creating an instance is straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
   RESERVATION     r-1ab61377      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        <strong>i-5babe737</strong>      ami-74f0061d                    pending &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:15:04+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled                                     ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
   """]]
   
   Use the instance identifier **i-XXXXXXX** to query the instance state via **ec2-describe-instances**. It will take some time to launch:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
   $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737 | grep running
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
   """]]
   
   ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
   
   We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
   
   1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
   1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 5 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 5GiB -- will contain the root file-system
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   *** Wait until both volumes are marked as "available" ***
   <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      available       2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   # Attach them under /dev/sdf and /dev/sdg respectively
   <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-36f88d5e -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdf"</strong> # root file-system
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attaching       2011-02-18T00:13:53+0000
   <strong>ec2-attach-volume vol-24f88d4c -i i-5babe737 -d "/dev/sdg"</strong> # Grub and kernel
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attaching       2011-02-18T00:14:02+0000
   *** Wait until both volumes are "attached" ***
   <strong>ec2-describe-volumes vol-24f88d4c vol-36f88d5e</strong>
   VOLUME  vol-36f88d5e    5               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:32+0000
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
   VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      in-use  2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        attached        2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
   """]]
   
   ## Snapshots!
   
   Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-authorize default -p 22
   GROUP           default 
   PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
   """]]
   
   We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz*, to our instance host:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
   rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
           ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
   # Upload disk image
   rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
           ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
   """]]
   
   Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
   $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
   [...]
   [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir /mnt/grub
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdg
   [...]
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mount /dev/sdg /mnt/grub/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mkdir -p /mnt/grub/boot/grub/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# cat > /mnt/grub/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF
   default=0
   timeout=0
   hiddenmenu
   
   title NetBSD AMI
   root (hd0)
   kernel /boot/netbsd root=xbd1
   EOF
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# mv netbsd /mnt/grub/boot/
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# umount /dev/sdg
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# gunzip < NetBSD-AMI.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sdf bs=32k
   [root@ip-10-99-86-193 ec2-user]# sync
   """]]
   
   ## Shutdown the Linux instance
   
   We now have to detach volumes, snapshot them, then we shutdown the Linux instance.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # ec2-detach-volume vol-36f88d5e
   ATTACHMENT      vol-36f88d5e    i-5babe737      /dev/sdf        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:00+0000
   # ec2-detach-volume vol-24f88d4c
   ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe737      /dev/sdg        detaching       2011-02-18T00:14:10+0000
   # ec2-create-snapshot vol-36f88d5e
   SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-deef2bb2</strong>   vol-36f88d5e    pending 2011-02-18T01:17:59+0000                983624114127    5
   # ec2-create-snapshot vol-24f88d4c
   SNAPSHOT        <strong>snap-8aef2be6</strong>   vol-24f88d4c    pending 2011-02-18T01:18:10+0000                983624114127    1
   # ec2-terminate-instances i-5babe737
   INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running shutting-down
   """]]
   
   # Playing with your first NetBSD instance
   
   ## Create your first NetBSD AMI
   
   An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
   
   /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So choose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch your NetBSD instance later!
   
   The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # Obtain all kernel images (AKI) for region US East, for which manifest location contains pv-grub (for PyGrub)
   # ec2-describe-images -a --region=us-east-1 -F image-type=kernel -F manifest-location=*pv-grub*
   IMAGE   aki-407d9529    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml        amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
   <strong>IMAGE   aki-427d952b    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd0-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml      amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen</strong>
   IMAGE   aki-4c7d9525    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-i386.gz.manifest.xml       amazon  available       public          i386    kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
   IMAGE   aki-4e7d9527    ec2-public-images/pv-grub-hd00-V1.01-x86_64.gz.manifest.xml     amazon  available       public          x86_64  kernel                          instance-store  paravirtual     xen
   """]]
   
   Pick the one with the correct architecture (x86_64 here). **hd0** are for AMIs where the snapshot contains no partition (where the volume is itself the whole partition), while **hd00** are for snapshots partitioned in a classical way (via MBR). Choose **hd0** AKIs. In this case, that will be **aki-427d952b**.
   
   We can proceed to the creation of our AMI, with:
   
   1. */dev/sda1* as Grub partition (*/dev/sdg*, snapshot **snap-8aef2be6** of volume **vol-24f88d4c**)
   1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-427d952b --region us-east-1 \
       -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
       -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;
   IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
   """]]
   
   ## Launch your first instance
   
   You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
   RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
   *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
   # Query console output for your new instance
   $ ec2-get-console-output i-953d72f9
   Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
       2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
       The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
   Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
       The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
   
   NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
   [...]
   NetBSD/amd64 (ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal) (console)
   
   login: 
   """]]
   
   ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
   
   Connection is similar to the one you used for the Amazon Linux instance, except that you login as "root" instead of "ec2-user":
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-describe-instances i-953d72f9
   RESERVATION     r-da8021b7      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        i-953d72f9      ami-74d0231d    <strong>ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>  ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal   running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-19T04:01:03+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     50.16.3.55      10.112.58.223                   ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
   BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-ec3c4a84    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
   BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda2       vol-ee3c4a86    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
   $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" root@ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com
   The authenticity of host 'ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com (50.16.3.55)' can't be established.
   [...]
   Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.
   
   Terminal type is xterm.
   We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
   ip-10-112-58-223# uname -a
   NetBSD ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal 5.99.45 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU amd64
   ip-10-112-58-223# 
   """]]
   
 # Play with your first NetBSD instance  Done!
   
 ## Create the instance  ## And now?
   
 ## Connect to it  Well, you got a NetBSD instance that is in almost every part similar to what a NetBSD domU can be. You can use this domU to host Internet services, run a database, extend your build farm, or use it as a sandbox. The AMI being built around snapshots, you can play and break your instance in every way you want; just restart one anew if you need to. Don't forget that Amazon will charge acccordingly :)
   
 ## And now?  Remember, you can query information regarding your AWS account through [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]] package. It is quite easy to use these tools for scripting; for a more elaborate, graphical interface, use the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).

Removed from v.1.2  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.34


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