Diff for /wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn between versions 1.21 and 1.29

version 1.21, 2011/02/19 02:42:58 version 1.29, 2011/02/23 21:42:03
Line 77  These instances are tied to a *region* ( Line 77  These instances are tied to a *region* (
   
 AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.  AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
   
   # Using pre-made AMIs
   
   XXX TODO
   
 # Build-up your NetBSD system  # Build-up your NetBSD system
   
 ## Fetch and build NetBSD  ## Fetch and build NetBSD
Line 90  This tutorial assumes that you will buil Line 94  This tutorial assumes that you will buil
 [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:  [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 # fetch src.tgz  cd /usr/
 # decompress  # grab a recent src.tgz file (use curl(1), ftp(1), wget(1), ...)
 # build toolchain, kernel and distribution  ftp -a 'http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src.tar.gz'
 # install in /mnt/ec2  # Decompress
   tar -xzpf src.tar.gz
   cd src
   # build distribution and kernel
   ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -m amd64 -U distribution
   ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 kernel=XEN3_DOMU
   # install distribution in /mnt/ec2
   su ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -U -V INSTALLSETS="base etc" install=/mnt/ec2
 """]]  """]]
   
 # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree  # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
Line 105  Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add  Line 116  Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add 
 [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
 rc_configured=YES  rc_configured=YES
   
 hostname=NetBSD-EC2-$(uname -m)  ec2_init=YES
 sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
 """]]  """]]
   
Line 114  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in Line 125  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in
 PermitRootLogin without-password  PermitRootLogin without-password
 """]]  """]]
   
 This file is needed if you want to login via the SSH key pair created previously:  This file is needed if you want to login via the EC2 SSH key pair created previously:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2-init text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2_init text="""
 #!/bin/sh  #!/bin/sh
 #  #
 # PROVIDE: amazon-ec2  # PROVIDE: ec2_init
 # REQUIRE: NETWORKING  # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
 # BEFORE:  LOGIN  # BEFORE:  LOGIN
   
 $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr  $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
   
 name="ec2_init"  name="ec2_init"
   rcvar=${name}
 start_cmd="ec2_init"  start_cmd="ec2_init"
 stop_cmd=":"  stop_cmd=":"
   
 SSH_KEY_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-keys/0/openssh-key"  METADATA_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/"
   SSH_KEY_URL="public-keys/0/openssh-key"
   HOSTNAME_URL="hostname"
   
 SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"  SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
   
 ec2_init()  ec2_init()
Line 137  ec2_init() Line 152  ec2_init()
         (          (
         umask 022          umask 022
         # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services          # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
         EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "$SSH_KEY_URL")          EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${SSH_KEY_URL}")
   
         if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then          if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
                 # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it                  # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
                 # to root 'authorized_keys' file                  # to root 'authorized_keys' file
                 mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")                  mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                   touch "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                 cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")                  cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   
                 grep "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"                  grep -q "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                 if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then                  if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                         echo "Setting associated SSH key pair."                          echo "Setting EC2 SSH key pair: ${EC2_SSH_KEY##* }"
                         echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"                          echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                 fi                  fi
         fi          fi
   
           # set hostname
           HOSTNAME=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${HOSTNAME_URL}")
           echo "Setting EC2 hostname: ${HOSTNAME}"
           echo "$HOSTNAME" > /etc/myname
           hostname "$HOSTNAME"
         )          )
 }  }
   
   
   load_rc_config $name
   run_rc_command "$1"
 """]]  """]]
   
 Create various files and directories:  Create various files and directories:
Line 161  Create various files and directories: Line 186  Create various files and directories:
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 cd /mnt/ec2  cd /mnt/ec2
 # Add proc and kern directories  # Add proc and kern directories
 mkdir proc kern  mkdir grub kern proc
 # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP  # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
 echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0  echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
 # Basic fstab entries  # Basic fstab entries
 cat > etc/fstab << EOF  cat > etc/fstab << EOF
 /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1  /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
 /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2  /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2fs rw 2 2
 kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw  kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
 ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw  ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
 procfs     /proc    procfs rw  procfs     /proc    procfs rw
 EOF  EOF
 # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)  # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
 if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2-init ]; then  if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2_init ]; then
     chmod 755 etc/rc.d/ec2-init      chmod 755 etc/rc.d/ec2_init
 fi  fi
 """]]  """]]
   
 You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):  You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/   $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
Line 195  $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img Line 220  $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
   
 # Upload NetBSD to EC2  # Upload NetBSD to EC2
   
 We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. For that, we will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.  We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. We will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
   
 EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.  EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
   
Line 203  The examples listed here assume that the Line 228  The examples listed here assume that the
   
 ## Create an Amazon Linux instance  ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
   
 Creating an instance straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.  Creating an instance is straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME  $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
Line 258  GROUP           default  Line 283  GROUP           default 
 PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0  PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
 """]]  """]]
   
 We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img*, to our instance host:  We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz*, to our instance host:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 # Upload kernel to Linux AMI  # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
Line 352  IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong> Line 377  IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
 You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:  You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c       $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
 RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default  RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
 INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled  INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
 *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***  *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
Line 365  Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 19 Line 390  Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 19
     The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.      The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
   
 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
         jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU  
 [...]  [...]
   NetBSD/amd64 (ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal) (console)
   
   login: 
 """]]  """]]
   
 ## Connect to your NetBSD instance  ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
   
   Connection is similar to the one you used for the Amazon Linux instance, except that you login as "root" instead of "ec2-user":
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-describe-instances i-953d72f9
   RESERVATION     r-da8021b7      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        i-953d72f9      ami-74d0231d    <strong>ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>  ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal   running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-19T04:01:03+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     50.16.3.55      10.112.58.223                   ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
   BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-ec3c4a84    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
   BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda2       vol-ee3c4a86    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
   $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" root@ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com
   The authenticity of host 'ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com (50.16.3.55)' can't be established.
   [...]
   Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.
   
   Terminal type is xterm.
   We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
   ip-10-112-58-223# uname -a
   NetBSD ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal 5.99.45 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU amd64
   ip-10-112-58-223# 
   """]]
   
   Done!
   
 ## And now?  ## And now?
   
   Well, you got a NetBSD instance that is in almost every part similar to what a NetBSD domU can be. You can use this domU to host Internet services, run a database, extend your build farm, or use it as a sandbox. The AMI being built around snapshots, you can play and break your instance in every way you want; just restart one anew if you need to. Don't forget that Amazon will charge acccordingly :)
   
   Remember, you can query information regarding your AWS account through [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]] package. It is quite easy to use these tools for scripting; for a more elaborate, graphical interface, use the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).

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