Diff for /wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn between versions 1.20 and 1.46

version 1.20, 2011/02/19 01:13:56 version 1.46, 2011/03/13 02:18:41
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 # Introduction  # Introduction
   
 This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service.  This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service. We will first give some brief explanations on how you can obtain an AWS account, and what you will need to run NetBSD under EC2. Then, at your convenience, you will be able to start with pre-made images, or roll-out your own.
   
 # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)  # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
   
 If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/), and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.  If you already have an account for [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/), and you are a registered user for EC2 service, you can directly jump to section [What do you need to know](#index2h2). If not, keep reading.
   
 ## Quick overview  [[!inline pages="amazon_ec2/first_steps" raw="yes"]]
   
 Before you can start playing with Amazon EC2, you have to create an account on Amazon Web Services, of which EC2, the Elastic Compute Cloud, is part. This is fairly straightforward, and done in two steps:  # Using pre-made AMIs
   
 1. you "sign-up" directly on [Amazon Web Services](http://aws.amazon.com/) home-page. This is where you enter your credentials, and confirm your AWS account registration.  [[!inline pages="amazon_ec2/AMIs" raw="yes"]]
 1. you sign-up to EC2 through [EC2 AWS home-page](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/). You will be asked some more information, like a credit card (for billing), and a phone-number, for account validation.  
   
 ## What do you need to know?  
   
 EC2 uses different types of credentials. In addition to your login and password, you need an access key, a X.509 certificate (with its private key), and a pair of RSA keys, for remote SSH access.  
   
 These can be created through the [Security Credentials](https://aws-portal.amazon.com/gp/aws/developer/account/index.html?ie=UTF8&action=access-key) page (also accessible from the [Account](http://aws.amazon.com/account/) page):  
   
 1. create the access key. Keep a secured copy of the ID and its associated secret value. These will be used by various scripts later on to perform certain EC2 actions.  
 1. note down your account number (different from your access key ID!). This identifier can usually be obtained in the right top part of the page; it is a serie of numbers, separated with dashes: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX.  
 1. create, or upload, a X.509 certificate, in PEM format. Keep the private key in a safe place.  
 1. lastly, generate Amazon EC2 key pairs that will be used for SSH access. This step will be performed through the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home). Note down the SSH Key Pair Name you chose.  
   
 ### Keep your credentials!  
   
 The different credentials created above will be used in various places of EC2, and by a myriad of commands. You are advised to keep them easily accessible, while still reasonably secure regarding their access. Most EC2 tools expect them to be find through a set of environment variables.  
   
 For convenience, you could store them under a *.ec2* directory inside your *$HOME*:  
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  
 $ ls .ec2/                                                                  
 cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem # the X.509 certificate  
 id_rsa.ec2             # private RSA SSH key  
 id_rsa.ec2.pub         # public RSA SSH key  
 pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem   # the private key associated to the certificate  
 """]]  
   
 then set the environment accordingly:  
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  
 export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/pk-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem  
 export EC2_CERT=$HOME/.ec2/cert-SOMERANDOMKEY.pem  
 export EC2_SSH_KEY=$HOME/.ec2/id_rsa.ec2  
 export EC2_SSH_KEYNAME=<your_ssh_key_pair_name>  
 export EC2_ACCOUNT_NUM=XXXX-XXXX-XXXX  
 export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=MYACCESSKEYID  
 export EC2_SECRET_KEY=MYSECRETACCESSKEY  
 """]]  
   
 Please note that the rest of the tutorial will assume that these variables are set.  
   
 ## Installing EC2 API tools  
   
 NetBSD provides EC2 API tools, to ease EC2 account management a little bit. The package is found inside [pkgsrc](http://www.pkgsrc.org), under [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]].  
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  
 cd /usr/pkgsrc/misc/ec2-api-tools  
 make ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=amazon-software-license install  
 """]]  
   
 Package depends on Java, so build will take some time to finish. While it builds, just continue reading.  
   
 ## EC2 vocabulary -- last notes  
   
 Before starting to play with EC2, you need to be familiar with the EC2 vocabulary used throughout this tutorial.  
   
 Briefly said, EC2 uses [Xen](http://www.xen.org) as virtualization solution. So, in essence, all operating systems that support Xen para-virtualization can theoretically run inside EC2, as a domU. This is the case for NetBSD; however, please note that only amd64 is currently supported. Work is on-going to support 32 bits for EC2.  
   
 All operating systems are run as *instances*, which are, as their name implies, the instantiation of a specific AMI, or *Amazon Machine Image*. An AMI is an image built from specific *snapshots* of *volumes*. The volumes are part of [Elastic Block Storage](http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/) (or EBS for short), which is another service offered by AWS, distinct from EC2.  
   
 These instances are tied to a *region* (a geographical location; typically US East, US West, Europe West, etc.). Each region has *availability zones*, which can be compared to a sub-region, each one being physically distinct from another. Regions are identified by a name, like *us-east-1*, *eu-west-1*. Same goes for availability zones, usually with the region's name as prefix: *us-east-1a*, *us-east-1b*, and so forth. Note that resources are **not** shared between zones, so if you transfer data from one zone to another, you will be charged for it.  
   
 AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.  
   
 # Build-up your NetBSD system  # Build-up your NetBSD system
   
Line 85  EC2 does not provide direct access to co Line 22  EC2 does not provide direct access to co
   
 This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.  This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
   
 /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to [[fetch the source|fetching_src]] to build the toolchain that will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.  /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to build the toolchain, which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
   
 XXX build and install /mnt/ec2  [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /usr/
   # grab a recent src.tgz file (use curl(1), ftp(1), wget(1), ...)
   ftp -a 'http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src.tar.gz'
   # Decompress
   tar -xzpf src.tar.gz
   cd src
   # build distribution and kernel
   ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -m amd64 -U distribution
   ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -m amd64 kernel=XEN3_DOMU
   # install distribution in /mnt/ec2
   su root ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -D ../dest -R ../release -U -V INSTALLSETS="base etc" install=/mnt/ec2
   """]]
   
 # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree  # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
   
Line 98  Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add  Line 49  Under */mnt/ec2*, edit the files to add 
 [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.conf text="""
 rc_configured=YES  rc_configured=YES
   
 hostname=NetBSD-EC2-$(uname -m)  ec2_init=YES
 sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to instance
 """]]  """]]
   
Line 107  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in Line 58  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in
 PermitRootLogin without-password  PermitRootLogin without-password
 """]]  """]]
   
 Create *etc/fstab* and *etc/ifconfig.xennet0*:  This file is needed if you want to login via the EC2 SSH key pair created previously:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2_init text="""
   #!/bin/sh
   #
   # PROVIDE: ec2_init
   # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
   # BEFORE:  LOGIN
   
   $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
   
   name="ec2_init"
   rcvar=${name}
   start_cmd="ec2_init"
   stop_cmd=":"
   
   METADATA_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/"
   SSH_KEY_URL="public-keys/0/openssh-key"
   HOSTNAME_URL="hostname"
   
   SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
   
   ec2_init()
   {
           (
           umask 022
           # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
           EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${SSH_KEY_URL}")
   
           if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
                   # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
                   # to root 'authorized_keys' file
                   mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                   touch "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   
                   grep -q "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                           echo "Setting EC2 SSH key pair: ${EC2_SSH_KEY##* }"
                           echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   fi
           fi
   
           # set hostname
           HOSTNAME=$(ftp -o - "${METADATA_URL}${HOSTNAME_URL}")
           echo "Setting EC2 hostname: ${HOSTNAME}"
           echo "$HOSTNAME" > /etc/myname
           hostname "$HOSTNAME"
           )
   }
   
   load_rc_config $name
   run_rc_command "$1"
   """]]
   
   Create various files and directories:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 cd /mnt/ec2  cd /mnt/ec2
 echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0 # EC2 network configuration  # Add proc and kern directories
   mkdir grub kern proc
   # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
   echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
   # Basic fstab entries
 cat > etc/fstab << EOF  cat > etc/fstab << EOF
 /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1  /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
 /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2  /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2fs rw 2 2
 kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw  kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
 ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw  ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
 procfs     /proc    procfs rw  procfs     /proc    procfs rw
 EOF  EOF
   # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
   if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2_init ]; then
       chmod 555 etc/rc.d/ec2_init
   fi
 """]]  """]]
   
 You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):  You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/   $ makefs -t ffs -B le -s 256m -N /mnt/ec2/etc/ -o density=32k /tmp/NetBSD-AMI.img /mnt/ec2/ 
 Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes  Calculated size of `NetBSD-AMI.img': 268435456 bytes, 7345 inodes
 Extent size set to 8192  Extent size set to 8192
 NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024  NetBSD-AMI.img: 256.0MB (524288 sectors) block size 8192, fragment size 1024
Line 138  $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img Line 152  $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
   
 # Upload NetBSD to EC2  # Upload NetBSD to EC2
   
 We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. For that, we will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.  We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. We will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
   
 EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.  EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
   
Line 146  The examples listed here assume that the Line 160  The examples listed here assume that the
   
 ## Create an Amazon Linux instance  ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
   
 Creating an instance straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.  Creating an instance is straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME  $ ec2-run-instances ami-74f0061d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
Line 196  ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe7 Line 210  ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe7
 Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:  Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ec2-authorize default -p 22  $ ec2-authorize default -p 22 --region us-east-1
 GROUP           default   GROUP           default 
 PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0  PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
 """]]  """]]
   
 We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img*, to our instance host:  We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img.gz*, to our instance host:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 # Upload kernel to Linux AMI  # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
 rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" OBJ/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \  rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:          ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
 # Upload disk image  # Upload disk image
 rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \  rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
Line 295  IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong> Line 309  IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>
 You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:  You can now start your own NetBSD instance, via:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c       $ ec2-run-instances ami-74d0231d -t t1.micro -z us-east-1c -k $EC2_SSH_KEYNAME
 RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default  RESERVATION     r-08218465      983624114127    default
 INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled  INSTANCE        <strong>i-953d72f9</strong>      ami-74d0231d                    pending         0               t1.micro        2011-02-18T02:05:46+0000        us-east-1c      aki-4e7d9527                    monitoring-disabled
 *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***  *** Wait a few minutes, micro instances take time to start ***
Line 308  Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 19 Line 322  Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 19
     The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.      The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
   
 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011
         jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU  
 [...]  [...]
   NetBSD/amd64 (ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal) (console)
   
   login: 
 """]]  """]]
   
 ## Connect to your NetBSD instance  ## Connect to your NetBSD instance
   
   Connection is similar to the one you used for the Amazon Linux instance, except that you login as "root" instead of "ec2-user":
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-describe-instances i-953d72f9
   RESERVATION     r-da8021b7      983624114127    default
   INSTANCE        i-953d72f9      ami-74d0231d    <strong>ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>  ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal   running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-19T04:01:03+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     50.16.3.55      10.112.58.223                   ebs                                     paravirtual     xen     
   BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-ec3c4a84    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
   BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda2       vol-ee3c4a86    2011-02-19T04:01:31.000Z        
   $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" root@ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com
   The authenticity of host 'ec2-50-16-3-55.compute-1.amazonaws.com (50.16.3.55)' can't be established.
   [...]
   Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.
   
   Terminal type is xterm.
   We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
   ip-10-112-58-223# uname -a
   NetBSD ip-10-112-58-223.ec2.internal 5.99.45 NetBSD 5.99.45 (XEN3_DOMU) #9: Wed Feb 16 21:14:49 CET 2011  jym@paris:/home/jym/cvs/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU amd64
   ip-10-112-58-223# 
   """]]
   
   Done!
   
 ## And now?  ## And now?
   
   Well, you got a NetBSD instance that is in almost every part similar to what a NetBSD domU can be. You can use this domU to host Internet services, run a database, extend your build farm, or use it as a sandbox. The AMI being built around snapshots, you can play and break your instance in every way you want; just restart one anew if you need to. Don't forget that Amazon will charge acccordingly :)
   
   Remember, you can query information regarding your AWS account through [[!template id=pkg category=misc name=ec2-api-tools]] package. It is quite easy to use these tools for scripting; for a more elaborate, graphical interface, use the [Amazon Management Console](https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/home).

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