Diff for /wikisrc/amazon_ec2.mdwn between versions 1.16 and 1.21

version 1.16, 2011/02/18 03:47:33 version 1.21, 2011/02/19 02:42:58
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 # Introduction  # Introduction
   
 This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service.  This tutorial aims at showing how you can build, setup, upload and launch NetBSD under the [Amazon EC2](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) service. We will first give some brief explanations on how you can obtain an AWS account, and what you will need to run NetBSD under EC2. Then, at your convenience, you will be able to start with pre-made images, or roll-out your own.
   
 # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)  # Subscribe to AWS (Amazon Web Services)
   
Line 77  These instances are tied to a *region* ( Line 77  These instances are tied to a *region* (
   
 AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.  AKI, or *Amazon Kernel Image*, are a specific type of image. It represents the Xen guest para-virtualized kernel, as used by an AMI. Certain AKIs are allowed to boot customized operating systems, e.g. those that are still not officially supported by Amazon. Thanks to [PyGrub](http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/PyGrub), it can boot a kernel that resides inside an AMI's snapshot.
   
 # Building-up your NetBSD system  # Build-up your NetBSD system
   
 ## Fetch and build NetBSD  ## Fetch and build NetBSD
   
Line 85  EC2 does not provide direct access to co Line 85  EC2 does not provide direct access to co
   
 This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.  This tutorial assumes that you will build the system under */mnt/ec2*.
   
 /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to [[fetch the source|fetching_src]] to build the toolchain that will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.  /!\Please note that you will need the [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]] tool later in the process, so you can build a file system image that can be uploaded to Amazon EC2. You are therefore advised to perform the installation directly under a living NetBSD system, or in case your are not, to fetch the *src* tree to build the toolchain, which will contain the **nbmakefs** utility.
   
 XXX build and install /mnt/ec2  [Details regarding on how you can fetch *src* are given in the NetBSD's guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-fetch.html). Here are the basic commands you should type to build and install NetBSD under */mnt/ec2*:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # fetch src.tgz
   # decompress
   # build toolchain, kernel and distribution
   # install in /mnt/ec2
   """]]
   
 # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree  # Configuration of your NetBSD EC2 tree
   
Line 107  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in Line 114  sshd=YES # for remote shell access to in
 PermitRootLogin without-password  PermitRootLogin without-password
 """]]  """]]
   
 Create *etc/fstab* and *etc/ifconfig.xennet0*:  This file is needed if you want to login via the SSH key pair created previously:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name=etc/rc.d/ec2-init text="""
   #!/bin/sh
   #
   # PROVIDE: amazon-ec2
   # REQUIRE: NETWORKING
   # BEFORE:  LOGIN
   
   $_rc_subr_loaded . /etc/rc.subr
   
   name="ec2_init"
   start_cmd="ec2_init"
   stop_cmd=":"
   
   SSH_KEY_URL="http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-keys/0/openssh-key"
   SSH_KEY_FILE="/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
   
   ec2_init()
   {
           (
           umask 022
           # fetch the key pair from Amazon Web Services
           EC2_SSH_KEY=$(ftp -o - "$SSH_KEY_URL")
   
           if [ -n "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ]; then
                   # A key pair is associated with this instance, add it
                   # to root 'authorized_keys' file
                   mkdir -p $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
                   cd $(dirname "$SSH_KEY_FILE")
   
                   grep "$EC2_SSH_KEY" "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
                           echo "Setting associated SSH key pair."
                           echo "$EC2_SSH_KEY" >> "$SSH_KEY_FILE"
                   fi
           fi
           )
   }
   
   """]]
   
   Create various files and directories:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 cd /mnt/ec2  cd /mnt/ec2
 echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0 # EC2 network configuration  # Add proc and kern directories
   mkdir proc kern
   # EC2 network configuration, via DHCP
   echo "dhcp" > etc/ifconfig.xennet0
   # Basic fstab entries
 cat > etc/fstab << EOF  cat > etc/fstab << EOF
 /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1  /dev/xbd1a /        ffs    rw 1 1
 /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2  /dev/xbd0a /grub    ext2   rw 2 2
Line 119  kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw Line 172  kernfs     /kern    kernfs rw
 ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw  ptyfs      /dev/pts ptyfs  rw
 procfs     /proc    procfs rw  procfs     /proc    procfs rw
 EOF  EOF
   # EC2 startup script (if you installed it)
   if [ -f etc/rc.d/ec2-init ]; then
       chmod 755 etc/rc.d/ec2-init
   fi
 """]]  """]]
   
 You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):  You can then proceed to modifying the system living under */mnt/ec2*, so it can fit your needs (adding custom binaries, packages, etc). When done, build the *NetBSD-AMI.img* ffs image, via [[!template id=man name=makefs section=8]], or **nbmakefs**, from the [toolchain](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-build.html#chap-build-tools):
Line 136  Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete Line 193  Image `NetBSD-AMI.img' complete
 $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img  $ gzip -9n NetBSD-AMI.img
 """]]  """]]
   
 # Uploading NetBSD to EC2  # Upload NetBSD to EC2
   
 We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. For that, we will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.  We must now upload our NetBSD system to EC2. For that, we will have to create a minimalist EC2 instance, to which we will copy our files to construct our snapshots. For that, we will use an Amazon Linux AMI instance.
   
 EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Chose ones backed by EBS.  EC2 being localized in geographical regions, you have to carefully choose the AMI identifier you want to use there. This depends on where you want to execute your instance. Amazon Linux AMI IDs are listed on [the main page](http://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/) of the project, by regions. Choose ones backed by EBS.
   
 The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.  The examples listed here assume that the instances run in **US East**, within the **c** zone (e.g. **us-east-1c**). To have a list of EC2 regions, you can use the command **ec2-describe-regions**, and **ec2-describe-availability-zones** for availability zones.
   
 ## Creating the instance  ## Create an Amazon Linux instance
   
 Creating an instance straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.  Creating an instance straightforward. Amazon provides [different types of instances](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/), with varying levels of billing and reliability. We will use a [*micro* instance](http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#How_much_compute_power_do_Micro_instances_provide); its pricing is almost free.
   
Line 162  $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5b Line 219  $ sleep 5 && ec2-describe-instances i-5b
 INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs  INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
 """]]  """]]
   
 ## Upload your files  ## Create and attach your NetBSD volumes
   
 We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:  We will have to create and attach two EBS volumes:
   
 1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.  1. one to contain the Grub *menu.lst* config file, as well as the NetBSD kernel.
 1. the other one will contain the root file-system.  1. the other one will contain the root file-system.
   
 ### Creating and attaching volumes  
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel  <strong>ec2-create-volume -s 1 -z us-east-1c</strong> # 1GiB -- will be used for Grub and kernel
 VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000  VOLUME  vol-24f88d4c    1               us-east-1c      creating        2011-02-18T00:06:21+0000
Line 195  ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe7 Line 250  ATTACHMENT      vol-24f88d4c    i-5babe7
   
 ## Snapshots!  ## Snapshots!
   
 We have to upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img*, to our instance host:  Before we can connect to our brand new instance, we have to allow connections on SSH port (22) through the AWS EC2 firewall:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   $ ec2-authorize default -p 22
   GROUP           default 
   PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
   """]]
   
   We can now upload the kernel and the NetBSD disk image created earlier, *NetBSD-AMI.img*, to our instance host:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 # Upload kernel to Linux AMI  # Upload kernel to Linux AMI
 rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" OBJ/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \  rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" /usr/obj/sys/arch/amd64/compile/XEN3_DOMU/netbsd \
         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:          ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
 # Upload disk image  # Upload disk image
 rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \  rsync -aPv -e "ssh -i $EC2_SSH_KEY" NetBSD-AMI.img.gz \
         ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:          ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com:
 """]]  """]]
   
 Before connecting to the instance, we have to allow connection on SSH port (22) through firewall. Then, log in to the instance, through its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.  Then, log in to the instance, via its name. We will format and mount the Grub partition, create the *menu.lst* file, then copy files to their respective partitions.
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737  $ ec2-describe-instances i-5babe737
 INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs  INSTANCE        i-5babe737      ami-74f0061d    <strong>ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com</strong>       ip-10-99-86-193.ec2.internal    running &lt;your_ssh_key_pair_name&gt;  0               t1.micro        2011-02-17T23:22:37+0000        us-east-1c      aki-427d952b                    monitoring-disabled     67.202.24.108   10.99.86.193                    ebs
 $ ec2-authorize default -p 22  
 GROUP           default   
 PERMISSION              default ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0  
 $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com  $ ssh -i "$EC2_SSH_KEY" ec2-user@ec2-67-202-24-108.compute-1.amazonaws.com
 [...]  [...]
 [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su  [ec2-user@ip-10-99-86-193 ~]$ sudo su
Line 260  INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running  Line 320  INSTANCE        i-5babe737      running 
   
 An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.  An AMI requires multiples components to be registered: the snapshots IDs we made in the previous chapter, as well as a specific AKI: the one that can chain-load Xenified kernels through PyGrub.
   
 /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So chose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch a NetBSD instance later!  /!\ AKIs are entitled to the same conditions as AMIs: their IDs are region-specific. So choose one carefully, or you will not be able to launch your NetBSD instance later!
   
 The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:  The list of AKIs that suits our situation can be obtained with the following command:
   
Line 281  We can proceed to the creation of our AM Line 341  We can proceed to the creation of our AM
 1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)  1. */dev/sda2* as root file-system (*/dev/sdf*, snapshot **snap-deef2bb2** of volume **vol-36f88d5e**)
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-4e7d9527 --region us-east-1 \  $ ec2-register -a x86_64 --kernel aki-427d952b --region us-east-1 \
     -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \      -b "/dev/sda1=snap-8aef2be6" -b "/dev/sda2=snap-deef2bb2" -n "NetBSD-x86_64-current" \
     -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;      -d "&lt;add your own description here&gt;
 IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>  IMAGE   <strong>ami-74d0231d</strong>

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  Added in v.1.21


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