Annotation of wikisrc/unicode.mdwn, revision 1.3

1.2       schmonz     1: How to use wide-range characters a.k.a. UTF-8 in NetBSD. 
                      2: 
                      3: [![Just to show off. That's how UTF-8 encoded spam will look like ;-)][3]][4]
                      4: 
                      5:    [3]: /images/200px-Unicoded-spam.png
                      6:    [4]: /images/Unicoded-spam.png (Just to show off. That's how UTF-8 encoded spam will look like ;-))
                      7: 
                      8: [![][5]][6]
                      9: 
                     10:    [5]: /images/magnify-clip.png
                     11:    [6]: /images/Unicoded-spam.png (Enlarge)
                     12: 
                     13: Just to show off. That's how UTF-8 encoded spam will look like ;-)
                     14: 
                     15: **Contents**
                     16: 
                     17: [[!toc levels=3]]
                     18: 
                     19: #  Introduction 
                     20: 
                     21: This is all about Unicode on NetBSD. 
                     22: 
                     23: #  Note on wscons 
                     24: 
                     25: wscons doesn't support UTF-8, you'll need **X11** and a proper **X terminal emulator** for this to be of any use, or you get character mash for lunch! Only the [ASCII][40] part of Unicode, namely the **first 128 characters, will work** in your wscons console, as they overlap in both UTF-8 and ISO-8859 character sets: 
                     26:     
                     27:        [40]: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII-Tabelle (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII-Tabelle)
                     28: 
                     29:    !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?     
                     30:        @ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_ 
                     31:        `abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~  
                     32:     
                     33: 
                     34: #  Note on uwscons 
                     35: 
                     36: Unofficial patches for 3.0 release can be found here: [ftp://tink.ims.ac.jp/pub/NetBSD/uwscons/][41]
                     37: 
                     38:    [41]: ftp://tink.ims.ac.jp/pub/NetBSD/uwscons/ (ftp://tink.ims.ac.jp/pub/NetBSD/uwscons/)
                     39: 
                     40: #  pkgsrc 
                     41: 
                     42:   * To make packages that support it use the ncurses library with wide-characters, add to /etc/mk.conf 
                     43:     
                     44:       PKG_DEFAULT_OPTIONS+= ncursesw
                     45:     
                     46: 
                     47: #  Soup up a shell 
                     48: 
                     49: ##  ksh 
                     50: 
                     51:   * Works. 
                     52:     
                     53:       chsh -s /bin/ksh
                     54:     
                     55: 
                     56: ##  mksh 
                     57: 
                     58:   * This one is an OpenBSD based Korn shell, works pretty well compared to the pdksh. 
                     59:     
                     60:        cd /usr/pkgsrc/shells/mksh
                     61:        make install clean
                     62:        chsh -s /usr/pkg/bin/mksh
                     63:     
                     64: 
                     65: ##  zsh 
                     66: 
                     67:   * Note: The stable version 4.2.x won't work. UTF-8 in the Z shell is enabled by default since 4.3.2. 
                     68:     
1.3     ! snj        69:        cd /usr/pkgsrc/shells/zsh
1.2       schmonz    70:        make install clean
                     71:        chsh -s /usr/pkg/bin/zsh
                     72:     
                     73: 
                     74: ##  tcsh 
                     75: 
                     76:   * Works out of the box. 
                     77:     
                     78:        cd /usr/pkgsrc/shells/tcsh
                     79:        make install clean
                     80:        chsh -s /usr/pkg/bin/tcsh
                     81:     
                     82: 
                     83: ##  bash 
                     84: 
                     85:   * Works out of the box. 
                     86:     
                     87:        cd /usr/pkgsrc/shells/bash
                     88:        make install clean
                     89:        chsh -s /usr/pkg/bin/bash
                     90:     
                     91: 
                     92: ##  Shell environment 
                     93: 
                     94:   * Set the variables LANG and LC_CTYPE in your shell configuration file 
                     95:     
                     96:        export LANG="en_US.UTF-8"
                     97:        export LC_CTYPE="en_US.UTF-8"
                     98:        export LC_ALL=""
                     99:     
                    100: 
                    101: or if you have a C-style shell 
                    102:     
                    103:        setenv LANG "en_US.UTF-8"
                    104:        setenv LC_CTYPE "en_US.UTF-8"
                    105:        setenv LC_ALL ""
                    106:     
                    107: 
                    108: The other locale variables should be left untouched, which is "C" by default, to not confuse programs. Other locales than en_US probably won't work too well, since the fonts aren't in the base system yet, but you can install them and try your luck, of course. 
                    109: 
                    110: The result should look like 
                    111:     
                    112:        % locale
                    113:        LANG="en_US.UTF-8"
                    114:        LC_CTYPE="en_US.UTF-8"
                    115:        LC_COLLATE="C"
                    116:        LC_TIME="C"
                    117:        LC_NUMERIC="C"
                    118:        LC_MONETARY="C"
                    119:        LC_MESSAGES="en_US.UTF-8"
                    120:        LC_ALL=""
                    121:     
                    122: 
                    123: #  X Terminal emulators 
                    124: 
                    125: ##  xterm 
                    126: 
                    127:   * Versions 239 and over work well with default "fixed" font 
                    128:   * Also works with ttf DejaVu Mono font 
                    129:   * Appears to have trouble with some other fonts such as Bitstream Vera Sans Mono despite this font being more complete than DejaVu 
                    130: 
                    131: ##  gnome-terminal 
                    132: 
                    133:   * Awesome and works great with the ttf Bitstream Vera Sans Mono or DejaVu Mono. 
                    134:   * Somewhat bloated considering the dependencies. 
                    135: 
                    136: ##  urxvt 
                    137: 
                    138:   * recommended 
                    139:     
                    140:        cd /usr/pkgsrc/x11/rxvt-unicode
                    141:        make install clean
                    142:     
                    143: 
                    144: ##  uxterm 
                    145: 
                    146:   * Works, as the 'u' might suggest, but last time I checked it sucked. Anyone? 
                    147: 
                    148: ##  aterm 
                    149: 
                    150:   * Doesn't work and probably never will. 
                    151: 
                    152: ##  Eterm 
                    153: 
                    154:   * Doesn't work either. Last time I checked the author was too busy with real-life. 
                    155: 
                    156: #  Utilities 
                    157: 
                    158: ##  less 
                    159: 
                    160:   * Set the shell environment variable LESSCHARSET to "utf-8". 
                    161: 
                    162: ##  screen 
                    163: 
                    164:   * .screenrc 
                    165:     
                    166:        defutf8 on
                    167:        encoding UTF-8
                    168:     
                    169: 
                    170: ##  lynx 
                    171: 
                    172:   * .lynxrc 
                    173:     
                    174:        character_set=UNICODE (UTF-8)
                    175:     
                    176: 
                    177: Or change "Display character set" in the options menu. 
                    178: 
                    179: ##  irssi 
                    180:     
                    181:        /set recode_autodetect_utf8 yes
                    182:        /set recode_fallback iso-8859-1  (or whatever seems fit)
                    183:        /set recode_out_default_charset UTF-8          
                    184:        /set term_charset UTF-8           
                    185:        /save        
                    186:     
                    187: 
                    188: ##  silc-client 
                    189:     
                    190:        /set term_type utf-8
                    191:        /save
                    192:     
                    193: 
                    194: and restart. 
                    195: 
                    196: ##  vi 
                    197: 
                    198:   * NetBSD's vi is based on nvi. It doesn't support wide-range characters as of version 1.79nb16 from 10/23/96, which is the one in current 4.99.15 and all releases thereunder. 
                    199: 
                    200: ##  nvi 
                    201: 
                    202:   * pkgsrc' nvi (v1.81.5) is supposed to work with wide-range characters after some tweaks. 
                    203: 
                    204: (XXX) 
                    205: 
                    206: ##  vim 
                    207: 
                    208:   * .vimrc 
                    209:     
                    210:        set encoding=utf-8           
                    211:        set fileencoding=utf-8
                    212:     
                    213: 
                    214: ##  emacs 
                    215: 
                    216:   * .emacs 
                    217:     
                    218:        ; === Set character encoding ===
                    219:        (setq locale-coding-system 'utf-8)
                    220:        (set-terminal-coding-system 'utf-8)
                    221:        (set-keyboard-coding-system 'utf-8)
                    222:        (set-selection-coding-system 'utf-8)
                    223:        (prefer-coding-system 'utf-8)
                    224:     
                    225: 
                    226: This one gives you umlauts: 
                    227:     
                    228:        ; === Make ä, ö, ü, ß work ===
                    229:        (set-language-environment 'german)
                    230:     
                    231: 
                    232: ##  mutt 
                    233: 
                    234:   * mutt should work with all the above. If it doesn't, put in your .muttrc something like 
                    235:     
                    236:       set charset="utf-8:iso-8859-1"
                    237:     
                    238: 
                    239: If you haven't set it in PKG_DEFAULT_OPTIONS already, you may also add to mk.conf 
                    240:     
                    241:       PKG_OPTIONS.mutt+= ncursesw
                    242:     
                    243: 
                    244: #  Servers 
                    245: 
                    246: ##  Apache2 
                    247: 
                    248:   * /usr/pkg/etc/httpd/httpd.conf 
                    249:     
                    250:       AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
                    251:     
                    252: 
                    253: #  Converting files 
                    254: 
                    255:   * If you have files containing non-ASCII ISO-8859 characters your system now will assume these are UTF-8 characters. They're not though, and the characters in these files will be misinterpreted which means that tools that use them will start breaking. Use iconv to convert these, which is part of the base system. 
                    256:     
                    257:        iconv -f iso8859-1 -t utf-8 file >file.new
                    258:     
                    259: 
                    260: #  Filesystems 
                    261: 
                    262:   * Be careful with special characters in filenames, as they'll look weird when you try to access them from a non-unicode environment. 
                    263: 

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